Adaptation and Natural Selection, Author: George C. Williams.
On the Origin of Species, Author: Charles Darwin.
The Major Transitions of Life, Authors: John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry.
The Origins of Life: From the Birth of Life to the Origin of Language, Authors: John Maynard Smith.
Governing the Commons, Author: Elinor Ostrom.
By David Sloan Wilson – Starting with Elinor Ostrom’s thesis research on how a group of stakeholders in southern California cobbled together a system for managing their water table, and culminating in her worldwide study of common-pool resource (CPR) groups, the message of her work was that groups are capable of avoiding the tragedy of the commons without requiring top-down regulation, at least if certain conditions are met.
She summarized the conditions in the form of eight core design principles:
- Clearly defined boundaries;
- Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs;
- Collective choice arrangements;
- Graduated sanctions;
- Fast and fair conflict resolution;
- Local autonomy;
- Appropriate relations with other tiers of rule-making authority (polycentric governance).
This work was so groundbreaking that Ostrom was awarded the Nobel Prize in economics in 2009.”
Hunter-gatherer societies are famously egalitarian, not because everyone is nice, but because members of a group can collectively suppress bullying and other self-aggrandizing behaviors within their ranks – the defining criterion of a major evolutionary transition. With disruptive competition within groups held largely in check, succeeding as a group became the main selective force in human evolution. more> https://goo.gl/EXln9r