787-10 Dreamliner Makes Its First Flight
Boeing – The 787-10 Dreamliner is the newest and longest member of the super-efficient 787 family.
As a stretch of the 787-9, the 787-10 leverages the family’s proven technology, long range and preferred passenger experience, with unprecedented efficiency: 10 percent better fuel and emissions than the best on offer by the competition and 25 percent better than the airplanes it will replace. more> boeing.com/commercial/787-10
Posted in Economic development, Economy, Education, Science, Technology, Transportation
Tagged 787-10, Boeing, Business improvement, Industrial economy, Manufacturing, Technology, United States
By Lynnette Reese – The IEEE 802.3bs standard for 400Gbps is on track to be ratified and released late this year. Higher speed technologies tend to get driven to adoption as soon as they are available.
In 2004, 10Gbps was the leading edge. In 2010 40Gbps Ethernet and 100Gbps were introduced. How did we get this far, so fast?
The present group is leveraging a parallel lane structure to get to 400Gbps. For electrical interfaces the fastest speeds in the spec will be 50Gbps. When discussing optical fiber transmission, then the variation depends on the distance that one requires.
Technically, 400Gbps is not possible without switching away from non-return-to-zero modulation (also known as NRZ-type) encoding, the encoding scheme that everyone thinks of when they visualize Ethernet communication and other serial data transmission schemes.
NRZ data is encoded into a binary pattern with fixed voltage levels. A binary 0 is represented by the lower voltage level; the higher voltage level indicates binary 1. In 1000base-T Ethernet, the stream of 0s and 1s is driven at a 1000 bits per second (1Gbps) transmission rate.
At present, the physical “wall” of streaming 0s and 1s for single lane electrical interfaces is 25 Gbps, found in the standards as 802.3bj across backplanes and cables, and 802.3bm across chip-to-chip and chip-to-module interfaces.
In May 2016, an IEEE 802.3 task force formed to develop a single-lane 50 Gbps Ethernet standard. The 802.3bs standard, which defines 400Gbps in aggregate, will use an encoding scheme called PAM4 (4-Level Pulse Amplitude Modulation) to reach 50Gbps per channel. PAM4 is an encoding scheme that doubles the bit rate by providing four signal levels in the space of the two that NRZ presently provides. PAM4 cleverly divides the least significant bit (LSB) signal level in half and adds it to the signal of the most significant bit (MSB). more> https://goo.gl/fcDF8f
Posted in Broadband, Communication industry, Economy, Education, Net, Product, Science, Technology
Tagged Broadband, Encding, Ethernet, Internet, Signal, Technology, Test & measurement