How Norway reduced the rich-poor earnings gap
By Dwyer Gunn – In the United States, vocational and technical education at the high-school level has long been controversial. Critics argue that vocational schools serve as warehouses for disadvantaged students, depriving them of the opportunity to attend college. Advocates maintain that vocational schools provide valuable labor-market skills and may better serve students who struggle with traditional academics or who can’t or don’t wish to attend college.
In recent years, however, a new vision has emerged, one that emphasizes increasing access to alternative educational models while ensuring that students who choose these pathways can still ultimately pursue higher education. Many states are exploring or have launched high-school apprenticeship programs, and there’s been renewed interest in the Career Academies education model, a 35-year-old approach aimed at restructuring high schools to create alternative pathways that lead to higher education or the workplace.
American reformers may find further inspiration in the results of a 25-year-old overhaul of vocational education in Norway. Research by Chicago Booth’s Marianne Bertrand and Jack Mountjoy, along with University of Chicago’s Magne Mogstad, suggests the reforms helped reduce the eventual earnings gap experienced by poor students, particularly boys, although not without some unintended consequences.
The sweeping changes, known as Reform 94, increased access to apprenticeships and altered the country’s vocational-track high-school degrees to allow graduates to attend college after a semester of supplemental academic courses. Before the changes, students in Norway who obtained vocational-track degrees had to restart high school and secure an academic diploma if they wanted to attend college. more>
Posted in Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, How to, Net, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Chicago Booth, Internet, Jobs, Skills, Technology
Why noise is one of the biggest problems with electric cars
By Steven Dom – Imagine your company is engineering the next line of electric vehicles. You create technical specifications that reduce range anxiety, you’ve perfected the colors that pop and entice customers to buy and with battery technology advancement, you’ve priced it right.
But there are problems with electric cars.
Because the electric vehicle engine emits no noise, pedestrians are more likely to be struck by an electric vehicle. A study by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration indicated that hybrid and electric vehicles are 57 percent more likely to cause accidents with cyclists, and 37 percent more likely to cause an accident with pedestrians, than a standard internal combustion engine vehicle.
Countries are requiring the quietest cars emit a sound to warn those around the vehicle of its presence.
Now, imagine after creating the ideal electric vehicle, the customers reject it based on the noise it emits. What if your vehicle’s noise is too strange or annoying?
This is just one of the many perils facing the quiet electric vehicle.
The goal of successfully getting an electric vehicle to market, one that a consumer would be interested in and enjoying, was about improving range. In a world lacking in electric vehicle infrastructure, solving range anxiety would allow customers to feel more comfortable driving the electric vehicles to-and-from work and longer trips beyond.
Engineers focused on vehicle architecture including the number of motors driving the wheels, managing the HVAC system’s energy consumption and finding ways to reduce weight, such as using thinner panels and less sound deadening components to provide better mileage. Without the roar of a combustion engine, there was no need to reduce noise. more>
Posted in Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, Science, Technology, Transportation
Tagged Business improvement, Electric vehicles, Industrial economy, Noise, PLM, Product lifecycle management, Siemens
Mobile backhaul: a key growth driver to fuel fiber investments
It is no secret that communication service providers are facing decreasing margins and increased financial leveraging, struggling to make the investments necessary to respond to the evolution of user and application requirements. Francisco Sant’Anna explains how regional providers can leverage carrier wholesale demand to enable profitable and sustainable fiber investments.
By Francisco Sant’Anna – Fiber has never been as critical as it is today, and this trend is likely to continue for a long time. With the evolution of 4G and initial 5G deployments underway we will see an almost six-fold increase in mobile data-traffic between 2018 and 2023 (according to Ovum’s Network Traffic Forecast: 2018-23, published in December 2018). The result? Massive demand for transport capacity. Combining this with the cell densification needed to deliver suitable coverage at a higher spectrum, mobile services will be a major driver for extending fiber reach.
Residential, business and public sectors are also driving this push for more fiber. Video continues to be the main application, having increased its share of total Internet download traffic from 58 percent to 61 percent from 2018 to 2019, according to Sandvine’s 2019 Internet Phenomena Report. New streaming and operator IPTV solutions are playing a major role in this growth, but on top of that, the evolution of video quality standards is expected to be crucial fuel to the four-fold video traffic increase that Ovum forecasts from 2018 to 2023 in its same report. Consumers’ unrelenting desire for more bandwidth is driving communication service providers on a quest to increase their bandwidth offerings throughout their covered areas, a key factor in a scenario where the largest pipe may have the best chance at winning the customer.
Analysis of recent acquisitions of regional providers shows that the valuation of most of these companies was largely based on their fiber networks. Most reports emphasize the number of fiber route-miles being acquired, with rare mentions of customer base or service expertise. Fiber-miles is the current gold-standard for the telecommunication sector. more>
Posted in Broadband, Business, Communication industry, Economic development, Economy, Education, How to, Net, Science, Technology
Tagged Broadband, Business improvement, Ciena, Fiber optics, Internet, Skills, Technology