By Matthew Scholl – The Director’s Corner will highlight how NIST’s cybersecurity, privacy, and information security-related projects are making a difference in the field and leading the charge to make positive changes.
I believe the greatest accomplishment for the division, and what I am most proud of, is how we work globally — and the way we work in an open, transparent, and inclusive process. This is especially true in the development and standardization of cryptography. This process, coupled with NISTs technical excellence in crypto, results in NIST encryption used by commercial IT products across the world. This underlying encryption enables billions of dollars of electronic commerce to function; such as swiping credit cards at the grocery store — to online purchases — to major financial exchanges.
As we look at 2020 and beyond, NIST will update our encryption standards and ensure that encryption will continue to enable the economy and protect our livelihood. The biggest thing coming in the future (that you will hear more and more about), is in the area of quantum resistant cryptography. NIST is building open, transparent, and inclusive encryption methods with our global partners for new sets of encryption that are needed when quantum computing becomes a reality.
Quantum computing is a completely new method and architecture of conducting computational activity (or way to generate information). When a quantum computer finally is strong enough, some of our current encryption will become vulnerable. Therefore, NIST is proactively working to create new encryption standards. more>
Posted in Business, Communication industry, Economy, Education, How to, Net, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Cybersecurity, Encryption, Internet, Monetary policy, NIST, Quantum Computing
Cable plays nice: Service convergence on the CIN
By Fernando Villarruel – At the start of 2019, the cable industry announced its vision for delivering 10 gigabit networks, ramping up from 1 Gbps service offerings to symmetrical speeds of 10 Gbps and beyond while enhancing the customer experience and achieving operational efficiencies. Industry bodies, cable MSOs, and vendors are working together to address industry-wide challenges associated with moving to next generation networks. Moving forward, even more interaction may be necessary if we want to maximize the potential of these new networks – particularly around convergence.
Recently, I’ve had the opportunity to meet with many MSOs in North America and other regions to talk about one of my favorite topics, the Converged Interconnect Network, otherwise known as CIN.
Some MSOs plan multi-service convergence in the CIN from the beginning, while others reserve the idea for future contemplation. For those considering service convergence “out of the gate,” it must be capable of providing (or delivering) different revenue services such as residential, mobile backhaul (small cell and macro-cell) and enterprise connections – and this is independent of delivery systems such as R-PHY, R-MACPHY, Flexible MAC Architecture (FMA), and even PON. In many cases, MSOs outside of the United States also have telco services (e.g. mobile networks – LTE, 4G, moving to 5G) and are interested in creating an environment where the last tentacles of the network – the access network – can fully participate in the convergence of services to maximize operational efficiencies. more>
Posted in Broadband, Business, Communication industry, Economic development, Economy, Education, How to, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Cable modem, Ciena, Fiber optics, Internet, Skills
Dissecting a submarine network trial announcement
With network infrastructure as critical as submarine cables, we’re constantly seeing new cables being announced and new technological milestones being achieved – but what’s real? Learn the difference between a hero trial, real-world trial, and how you can read between the lines to help separate hype from reality.
By Brian Lavallée – 2019 has and will continue to be a very busy year in the submarine network industry, with several new cables announced, deployed, and already put into the Ready for Service (RFS) state. Why does the industry need so many new submarine cables? To maintain pace with our ever-growing affinity and utter addiction to Internet-based content, which continues to drive the 40% CAGR in intercontinental bandwidth demand, according to industry analysts at TeleGeography, along the submerged information superhighways that interconnect continental landmasses.
As submarine networks are rightfully considered critical infrastructure, deploying new and modern cables will improve the overall reliability of the global network that erases distance and borders to close the digital divide.
When new submarine cable performance milestones are achieved in trials, they’re actively promoted through blogs, press releases, tweets, and webinars to celebrate, and why not? These new submerged wet plant and modem technology advancements are truly astonishing and deserve this fanfare – but the context of these achievements must be fully understood to determine what’s actually deployable for live customer traffic in the real-world.
A “hero field trial” typically uses best-case conditions that are not applicable in the real-world for production traffic, such as using Start-of-Life (SOL) performance margins and not End-of-Life (EOL) performance margins. A “hero trial announcement” can be identified by terms like “evaluation board”, “experimental”, “forward-looking”, “proof of concept”, “demonstration”, “industry first”, and other similar rather vague terms.
A hero trial focuses on demonstrating new capabilities of a technology and/or product albeit without consideration of commercial requirements or conditions. That said, it’s a critical step in the evolution of any new technology.
In contrast to a hero field trial, a “real-world field trial” focuses on demonstrating new capabilities of a technology and/or product albeit with consideration of commercial requirements and conditions. This means that the offering can reliably carry customer traffic and maintain the agreed to Service Level Agreements (SLA) in the long-term. more>
Posted in Broadband, Business, Communication industry, Economic development, Economy, Education, How to, Science, Technology
Tagged Broadband, Business improvement, Ciena, Fiber optics, Internet, Skills, Technology
How coherent technology decisions that start in the lab impact your network
What is the difference between 400G, 600G and 800G coherent solutions? It seems to be obvious, but is it just about maximum wavelength capacity? Why are different baud, modulations or DSP implementations used, and more importantly, what are the networking implications associated with each?
By Helen Xenos – 32QAM, 64QAM, and hybrid modulation….32, 56, 64, now 95Gbaud? Are they really any different? Fixed grid, flex grid, what’s 75GHz? Is your head spinning yet?
Coherent optical technology is a critical element that drives the amount of capacity and high-speed services that can be carried across networks and is a critical element in controlling their cost. But with multiple generations of coherent solutions available and more coming soon, navigating the different choices can be difficult. Unless you are immersed in the details and relationships between bits and symbols, constellations and baud in your everyday life, it can be confusing to understand how the technology choices made in each solution influence overall system performance and network cost.
To clarify these relationships, here is an analogy that helps provide a more intuitive understanding: consider performance-optimized coherent optical transport as analogous to freight transport.
The goal of network providers using coherent is to transport as much capacity as they can, in the most cost-efficient manner that they can, using wavelengths across their installed fiber. This is similar to wanting to be as efficient as possible in freight transport, carrying as much payload as you can using available truck and road resources.
So now, let’s look at a coherent modem – this is the subsystem that takes in client traffic (ex. 100 Gigabit Ethernet) and converts it into an optical signal using a certain modulation technique, and this optical signal is what we call a wavelength. Each wavelength carries a certain throughput (for example 100Gb/s), takes up a certain amount of spectrum, and requires a certain amount of channel spacing on a fiber. In most systems today, there is 4800GHz spectrum available in the C-band. So, for example, if a user deploys 100G wavelengths with 50GHz fixed channel spacing, their fiber can transport 96 x 100Gb/s or 9.6Tbs of capacity. more>
Posted in Broadband, Business, Communication industry, Economy, Education, How to, Net, Science, Technology
Tagged Broadband, Business improvement, Ciena, Fiber optics, Internet, Skills, Technology