Category Archives: Communication industry

Introducing Cybersecurity Insights: Director’s Corner

By Matthew Scholl – The Director’s Corner will highlight how NIST’s cybersecurity, privacy, and information security-related projects are making a difference in the field and leading the charge to make positive changes.

I believe the greatest accomplishment for the division, and what I am most proud of, is how we work globally — and the way we work in an open, transparent, and inclusive process. This is especially true in the development and standardization of cryptography. This process, coupled with NISTs technical excellence in crypto, results in NIST encryption used by commercial IT products across the world. This underlying encryption enables billions of dollars of electronic commerce to function­; such as swiping credit cards at the grocery store — to online purchases — to major financial exchanges.

As we look at 2020 and beyond, NIST will update our encryption standards and ensure that encryption will continue to enable the economy and protect our livelihood. The biggest thing coming in the future (that you will hear more and more about), is in the area of quantum resistant cryptography. NIST is building open, transparent, and inclusive encryption methods with our global partners for new sets of encryption that are needed when quantum computing becomes a reality.

Quantum computing is a completely new method and architecture of conducting computational activity (or way to generate information). When a quantum computer finally is strong enough, some of our current encryption will become vulnerable. Therefore, NIST is proactively working to create new encryption standards. more>

Updates from Ciena

Cable plays nice: Service convergence on the CIN
By Fernando Villarruel – At the start of 2019, the cable industry announced its vision for delivering 10 gigabit networks, ramping up from 1 Gbps service offerings to symmetrical speeds of 10 Gbps and beyond while enhancing the customer experience and achieving operational efficiencies. Industry bodies, cable MSOs, and vendors are working together to address industry-wide challenges associated with moving to next generation networks. Moving forward, even more interaction may be necessary if we want to maximize the potential of these new networks – particularly around convergence.

Recently, I’ve had the opportunity to meet with many MSOs in North America and other regions to talk about one of my favorite topics, the Converged Interconnect Network, otherwise known as CIN.

Some MSOs plan multi-service convergence in the CIN from the beginning, while others reserve the idea for future contemplation. For those considering service convergence “out of the gate,” it must be capable of providing (or delivering) different revenue services such as residential, mobile backhaul (small cell and macro-cell) and enterprise connections – and this is independent of delivery systems such as R-PHY, R-MACPHY, Flexible MAC Architecture (FMA), and even PON. In many cases, MSOs outside of the United States also have telco services (e.g. mobile networks – LTE, 4G, moving to 5G) and are interested in creating an environment where the last tentacles of the network – the access network – can fully participate in the convergence of services to maximize operational efficiencies. more>

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Updates from ITU

ITU Green Standards Week adopts Call to Action to accelerate transition to Smart Sustainable Cities
ITU News – ITU Green Standards Week has brought together governments, city leaders, businesses and citizens to share their experiences in driving the behavioral change required to achieve smart city objectives.

These participants have adopted a ‘Call to Action’ urging city stakeholders to accelerate the transition to Smart Sustainable Cities.

These participants have adopted a ‘Call to Action’ urging city stakeholders to accelerate the transition to Smart Sustainable Cities.

The Call to Action highlights that our cities – as powerful hubs of innovation, and a central force behind humanity’s impact on our environment – must make a defining contribution to the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). more>

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Updates from Ciena

5G wireless needs fiber, and lots of it
When the topic of 5G wireless comes up, your first thought likely isn’t about fiber networks running under the ground. 5G mobile networks will significantly affect both the wireless side (obviously!) and the wireline side of the global network infrastructure. In fact, 5G’s formidable network performance goals are heavily predicated on the availability of fiber, and lots of it, to cell sites.
By Brian Lavallée – According to the International Telecommunications Union’s (ITU) latest “Trends in Telecommunication Reform” report, ongoing capital investments related to fiber infrastructure are expected to total a staggering $144.2B between 2014 and 2019. One of the primary drivers for this immense capital investment into fiber infrastructure deployments comes out of thin air, in the form of tomorrow’s 5G radios.

5G mobile networks will significantly affect both the wireless side (obviously!) and the wireline side of the global network infrastructure, as airborne bits jump to and from terrestrial wireline networks. In a previous post, I summarized the main aspirational performance goals of 5G, which are listed below. These formidable network performance goals are heavily predicated on the availability of fiber, and lots of it, to the cell sites.

  • Up to 1000 times increased in bandwidth, per unit area
  • Up to 100 times more connected devices
  • Up to 10Gbps connection rates to mobile devices in the field
  • A perceived network availability of 99.999%
  • A perceived 100% network coverage
  • Maximum of 1ms end-to-end round trip delay (latency)
  • Up to 90% reduction in network energy utilization

Traditionally, 2G and 3G mobile networks often used copper-based Time Division multiplexing (TDM) circuits, such as multiple bonded T1s or E1s, to connect cell sites to a nearby Mobile Switching Center over the Mobile Backhaul (MBH) network. Although this now legacy MBH architecture has indeed served the industry well for decades, it’s quickly showing its age with advent of 4G. MBH upgrades are taking place all over the world converting legacy copper-based MBH serving cell sites to packet-based transport over fiber, which enables far higher capacities to best future-proof MBH networks.

The increased adoption of 4G LTE and LTE-Advanced mobile network technology is accelerating these MBH fiber upgrades, which can and will be leveraged by future 5G networks, given the almost unlimited bandwidth that fiber-based networks offer.You can examine viable options for the road ahead with our Essentials Series guide: Mobile Backhaul. more>

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Updates from ITU

The network operator of 2025: can telcos retain a leading role in the digital era?
ITU News – After building much of the infrastructure for the digital transformation we see across industries and society, traditional telecommunications network operators continue to be confronted by extensive changes in markets, technologies, consumer demands and value chains.

“We’re talking about the industry that 20 years ago was the sexiest industry in the world,” said Tomas Lamanauskas, founder and Managing Partner at Envision Associates, Ltd. “We’re at a little bit of a different stage now.”

That could be the understatement of the decade.

With new market players, multi-billion dollar mergers, massive infrastructure investment requirements and shrinking traditional revenue bases, the question arises: Can telecommunications companies (telcos) retain a leading role in the digital era? And what role will regulators have in this increasingly dynamic space?

The answers to these questions have great implications for people worldwide whose lives could be greatly benefited by a range of services from mobile banking and smart farming to intelligent transport systems and customized, precision healthcare solutions. And they have great implications for ITU, which counts telcos as some of its most active, most influential traditional private-sector members. more>

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Updates from Ciena

Dissecting a submarine network trial announcement
With network infrastructure as critical as submarine cables, we’re constantly seeing new cables being announced and new technological milestones being achieved – but what’s real? Learn the difference between a hero trial, real-world trial, and how you can read between the lines to help separate hype from reality.
By Brian Lavallée – 2019 has and will continue to be a very busy year in the submarine network industry, with several new cables announced, deployed, and already put into the Ready for Service (RFS) state. Why does the industry need so many new submarine cables? To maintain pace with our ever-growing affinity and utter addiction to Internet-based content, which continues to drive the 40% CAGR in intercontinental bandwidth demand, according to industry analysts at TeleGeography, along the submerged information superhighways that interconnect continental landmasses.

As submarine networks are rightfully considered critical infrastructure, deploying new and modern cables will improve the overall reliability of the global network that erases distance and borders to close the digital divide.

When new submarine cable performance milestones are achieved in trials, they’re actively promoted through blogs, press releases, tweets, and webinars to celebrate, and why not? These new submerged wet plant and modem technology advancements are truly astonishing and deserve this fanfare – but the context of these achievements must be fully understood to determine what’s actually deployable for live customer traffic in the real-world.

A “hero field trial” typically uses best-case conditions that are not applicable in the real-world for production traffic, such as using Start-of-Life (SOL) performance margins and not End-of-Life (EOL) performance margins. A “hero trial announcement” can be identified by terms like “evaluation board”, “experimental”, “forward-looking”, “proof of concept”, “demonstration”, “industry first”, and other similar rather vague terms.

A hero trial focuses on demonstrating new capabilities of a technology and/or product albeit without consideration of commercial requirements or conditions. That said, it’s a critical step in the evolution of any new technology.

In contrast to a hero field trial, a “real-world field trial” focuses on demonstrating new capabilities of a technology and/or product albeit with consideration of commercial requirements and conditions. This means that the offering can reliably carry customer traffic and maintain the agreed to Service Level Agreements (SLA) in the long-term. more>

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Updates from Ciena

How coherent technology decisions that start in the lab impact your network
What is the difference between 400G, 600G and 800G coherent solutions? It seems to be obvious, but is it just about maximum wavelength capacity? Why are different baud, modulations or DSP implementations used, and more importantly, what are the networking implications associated with each?
By Helen Xenos – 32QAM, 64QAM, and hybrid modulation….32, 56, 64, now 95Gbaud? Are they really any different? Fixed grid, flex grid, what’s 75GHz? Is your head spinning yet?

Coherent optical technology is a critical element that drives the amount of capacity and high-speed services that can be carried across networks and is a critical element in controlling their cost. But with multiple generations of coherent solutions available and more coming soon, navigating the different choices can be difficult. Unless you are immersed in the details and relationships between bits and symbols, constellations and baud in your everyday life, it can be confusing to understand how the technology choices made in each solution influence overall system performance and network cost.

To clarify these relationships, here is an analogy that helps provide a more intuitive understanding: consider performance-optimized coherent optical transport as analogous to freight transport.

The goal of network providers using coherent is to transport as much capacity as they can, in the most cost-efficient manner that they can, using wavelengths across their installed fiber. This is similar to wanting to be as efficient as possible in freight transport, carrying as much payload as you can using available truck and road resources.

So now, let’s look at a coherent modem – this is the subsystem that takes in client traffic (ex. 100 Gigabit Ethernet) and converts it into an optical signal using a certain modulation technique, and this optical signal is what we call a wavelength. Each wavelength carries a certain throughput (for example 100Gb/s), takes up a certain amount of spectrum, and requires a certain amount of channel spacing on a fiber. In most systems today, there is 4800GHz spectrum available in the C-band. So, for example, if a user deploys 100G wavelengths with 50GHz fixed channel spacing, their fiber can transport 96 x 100Gb/s or 9.6Tbs of capacity. more>

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National Security: Keeping Our Edge

By James Manyika, William H. McRaven and Adam Segal – The United States leads the world in innovation, research, and technology development. Since World War II, the new markets, industries, companies, and military capabilities that emerged from the country’s science and technology commitment have combined to make the United States the most secure and economically prosperous nation on earth.

This seventy-year strength arose from the expansion of economic opportunities at home through substantial investments in education and infrastructure, unmatched innovation and talent ecosystems, and the opportunities and competition created by the opening of new markets and the global expansion of trade.

This time there is no Sputnik satellite circling the earth to catalyze a response, but the United States faces a convergence of forces that equally threaten its economic and national security. First, the pace of innovation globally has accelerated, and it is more disruptive and transformative to industries, economies, and societies. Second, many advanced technologies necessary for national security are developed in the private sector by firms that design and build them via complex supply chains that span the globe; these technologies are then deployed in global markets.

The capacities and vulnerabilities of the manufacturing base are far more complex than in previous eras, and the ability of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to control manufacturing-base activity using traditional policy means has been greatly reduced. Third, China, now the world’s second-largest economy, is both a U.S. economic partner and a strategic competitor, and it constitutes a different type of challenger.

Tightly interconnected with the United States, China is launching government-led investments, increasing its numbers of science and engineering graduates, and mobilizing large pools of data and global technology companies in pursuit of ambitious economic and strategic goals.

The United States has had a time-tested playbook for technological competition. It invests in basic research and development (R&D), making discoveries that radically change understanding of existing scientific concepts and serve as springs for later-stage development activities in private industry and government.

It trains and nurtures science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) talent at home, and it attracts and retains the world’s best students and practitioners. It wins new markets abroad and links emerging technology ecosystems to domestic innovations through trade relationships and alliances. And it converts new technological advances into military capabilities faster than its potential adversaries.

Erosion in the country’s leadership in any of these steps that drive and diffuse technological advances would warrant a powerful reply. However, the United States faces a critical inflection point in all of them. more>

Updates from ITU

Why radiocommunications are so crucial for natural disaster management
By Mario Maniewicz – As the Director of ITU’s Radiocommunications Bureau, I could not highlight enough the relevance of radiocommunications, and more specifically the relevance of satellite communications in the management and mitigation of eventual crises.

Radiocommunication services have driven substantial transformation in many development-related sectors including environment, health and education – making them a key accelerator towards the achievement of the SDGs.

If we look into the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) No. 13 on Climate Action, its first target is to strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries.

Allow me to illustrate the key role satellite communications play towards achieving this SDG target by providing vital connectivity before, during and after a disaster occurs.

  • In order to be well-prepared for an event, accurate climate prediction and the detection of climate-related hazards are key. And both rely heavily on data obtained from space sensing and earth observation satellite systems.
  • In the unlikely detection of a natural disturbance in the state of the atmosphere, timely awareness and early warning of the population allows them to be better prepared and less impacted by a natural or environmental adversity.
  • Moreover, satellite communications are often used for rescue and relief operations as well as in vital life-saving responses, since they remain as a resilient solution even when terrestrial communications have been severely damaged.
  • Finally, satellite communications continue to provide valuable services until other telecommunication and basic services have been restored.

Taking into account the relevance of connectivity, especially for regions and countries affected by disasters, the ITU is striving to ensure that all the world’s people have access to affordable communications. more>

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Updates from ITU

Here’s how we can build public trust in self-driving vehicles
By Chaesub Lee – The automotive industry is undergoing extraordinary transformation.

The future of transport looks to be electric; highly automated; and – increasingly – shared.

This transformation is ambitious, and this ambition is very welcome.

In mobility, we can impact billions of people’s lives for the better.

We can save countless numbers of lives. We can improve environmental sustainability. And we can expand access to the many opportunities that mobility brings.

New technologies are at the heart of this transformation, and international standardization will be essential to ensure that these technologies are deployed efficiently and at scale.

That is why the ITU membership includes Volkswagen Group and Hyundai – and a diverse range of other automotive industry players such as China’s Telematics Industry Application Alliance, Continental, Bosch, BlackBerry, Tata Communications and Mitsubishi Electric.

By joining the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies, ICTs, they are helping to shape international standards that protect and encourage key investments, improve road safety and help build intelligent transport systems. more>

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