Maybe we don’t have to speculate about what life is like inside a bubble. It might be the only cosmic reality we know.
By J Richard Gott – The explanation for the accelerating cosmic expansion, surprising as it was at first, was readily available from the theoretical toolbox of physicists. It traced back to an idea from Albert Einstein, called the cosmological constant. Einstein invented it in 1917, as part of a failed attempt to produce a static Universe based on his general theory of relativity. At that time, the data seemed to support such a model.
In 1922, the Russian mathematician Alexander Friedmann showed that relativity in its simplest form, without the cosmological constant, seemed to imply an expanding or contracting Universe. When Hubble’s observations showed conclusively that the Universe was expanding, Einstein abandoned the cosmological constant, but the possibility that it existed never went away.
Then the Belgian physicist Georges Lemaître showed that the cosmological constant could be interpreted in a physical way as the vacuum of empty space possessing a finite energy density accompanied by a negative pressure. That idea might sound rather bizarre at first. We are accustomed, after all, to thinking that the vacuum of empty space should have a zero energy density, since it has no matter in it. But suppose empty space had a finite but small energy density – there’s no inherent reason why such a thing could not be possible.
Negative pressure has a repulsive gravitational effect, but at the same time the energy itself has an attractive gravitational effect, since energy is equivalent to mass. (This is the relationship described by E=mc2, another implication of special relativity.) Operating in three directions – left-right, front-back, and up-down – the negative pressure creates repulsive effects three times as potent as the attractive effects of the vacuum energy, making the overall effect repulsive. We call this vacuum energy dark energy, because it produces no light. Dark energy is the widely accepted explanation for why the expansion rate of the Universe is speeding up.
Distant galaxies will flee from us because of the stretching of space between us and them. After a sufficient number of doublings, the space between them and us will be stretching so fast that their light will no longer be able to cross this ever-widening gap to reach us. Distant galaxies will fade from view and we will find ourselves seemingly alone in the visible Universe. more>
By Umair Irfan – Humans are pumping more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere at an accelerating rate. But climate change is a cumulative problem, a function of the total amount of greenhouse gases that have accumulated in the sky. Some of the heat-trapping gases in the air right now date back to the Industrial Revolution. And since that time, some countries have pumped out vastly more carbon dioxide than others.
The wonderful folks at Carbon Brief have put together a great visual of how different countries have contributed to climate change since 1750. The animation shows the cumulative carbon dioxide emissions of the top emitters and how they’ve changed over time.
What’s abundantly clear is that the United States of America is the all-time biggest, baddest greenhouse gas emitter on the planet.
That’s true, despite recent gains in energy efficiency and cuts in emissions. These relatively small steps now cannot offset more than a century of reckless emissions that have built up in the atmosphere. Much more drastic steps are now needed to slow climate change. And as the top cumulative emitter, the US bears a greater imperative for curbing its carbon dioxide output and a greater moral responsibility for the impacts of global warming.
Yet the United States is now the only country aiming to withdraw from the Paris climate agreement. more>
Posted in Business, CONGRESS WATCH, EARTH WATCH, Education, Energy, Energy & emissions, History, Media, Nature, Science, Technology
Tagged Business, Capital, Climate change, Congress Watch, Government, Leadership, Super regions, Technology
Neuroscientists Team with Engineers to Explore how the Brain Controls Movement
By Carol Clark – Scientists have made remarkable advances into recording the electrical activity that the nervous system uses to control complex skills, leading to insights into how the nervous system directs an animal’s behavior.
“We can record the electrical activity of a single neuron, and large groups of neurons, as animals learn and perform skilled behaviors,” says Samuel Sober, an associate professor of biology at Emory University who studies the brain and nervous system. “What’s missing,” he adds, “is the technology to precisely record the electrical signals of the muscles that ultimately control that movement.”
The Sober lab is now developing that technology through a collaboration with the lab of Muhannad Bakir, a professor in Georgia Tech’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
The technology will be used to help understand the neural control of many different skilled behaviors to potentially gain insights into neurological disorders that affect motor control.
“By combining expertise in the life sciences at Emory with the engineering expertise of Georgia Tech, we are able to enter new scientific territory,” Bakir says. “The ultimate goal is to make discoveries that improve the quality of life of people.” more>
- This Matrix Delivers Healing Stem Cells to Injured Elderly Muscles, Ben Brumfield
- New Health Economics Lab and $3.3 Million in Funding Coming to Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts, Michael Pearson
- Researchers Help Close Security Hole in Popular Encryption Software, John Toon
- World’s Fastest Creature May Also be One of the Smallest, John Toon
- Sensor Could Monitor Brain Aneurysm Treatment, John Toon
- Georgia Tech Scientist Honored for Energy Research, Josh Brown
- García Chosen to Head Georgia Tech Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, John Toon
- Previously Overlooked “Coral Ticks” Weaken Degraded Reefs, John Toon
- Material Formed from Crab Shells and Trees Could Replace Flexible Plastic Packaging, Josh Brown
- Technique May Improve Lung Delivery of Bacteria-Killing Phage, John Toon
- As We Get Parched, Cognition Can Sputter, Dehydration Study Says, Ben Brumfield
- Georgia Tech receives $1.6 million for nuclear energy projects, Lance Wallace
- IceCube Neutrinos Point to Long-Sought Cosmic Ray Accelerator, John Toon
- Research could lead to longer talk time and higher data rates in 5G devices, John Toon
Posted in Economic development, Education, Energy, Nature, Net, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Electronics, Georgia Tech, Health, Physics, Technology
GSR-18 BEST PRACTICE GUIDELINES ON NEW REGULATORY FRONTIERS TO ACHIEVE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION
itu.int – Digitization is increasingly and fundamentally changing societies and economies and disrupting many sectors in what has been termed the 4th Industrial Revolution. Meanwhile, ICT regulation has evolved globally over the past ten years and has experienced steady transformation.
As regulators, we need to keep pace with advances in technology, address the new regulatory frontiers and create the foundation upon which digital transformation can achieve its full potential. Being prepared for digital transformation and emerging technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), Machine to Machine communications (M2M) and 5G is fundamental.
Advances in technology are creating new social phenomena and business models that impact every aspect of our personal and professional lives – and which challenge regulatory paradigms. M2M, cloud computing, 5G, AI and IoT are all bringing further profound change. Recognizing the potential of emerging technologies and the impact that policy and regulatory frameworks can have on their success, regulators should encourage a regulatory paradigm pushing frontiers and enabling the digital transformation. more> draft doc (pdf)
Posted in Broadband, Business, Communication industry, Economic development, Economy, Education, Energy, Healthcare, Net, Science, Technology, Telecom industry
Tagged Broadband, Business improvement, Internet, ITU, Net evolution, Regulations, Technology
Closed Loop Quality Management for Electronics
Siemens – Optimize and simplify business processes by standardizing and unifying quality related processes and workflows throughout your entire organization.
Quality planning begins during the engineering and design process of your product, and continuous with quality control during the manufacturing of the product.
With the collection of quality data from design and production you are able to initiate the problem solving process and improve your product and your manufacturing processes continuously and sustainably.
The Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle describes the four phases of the continuous improvement process (CIP) and is the basis for the Siemens PLM quality philosophy. more>
Posted in Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, Energy, Healthcare, Product, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Electronics, Manufacturing, Productivity, Quality management, Siemens, United States
By Kevin Clemens – Presently, commercial lithium ion batteries use a carbon graphite anode electrode and a metal oxide cathode electrode. They are separated by a liquid organic solvent that can pass lithium ions between the electrodes while preventing electrons from making the journey. The organic solvent of the electrolyte is flammable—resulting in a potential for a fire in the event that a lithium ion battery is punctured.
The anode side of a lithium ion battery is made from layers of graphite. Lithium ions are inserted between the material’s layers during charging and are released during discharge. Battery researchers realize that replacing the graphite anode with metallic lithium would allow many more lithium ions to flow during discharge, producing a battery with at least twice the capacity. But during the charging stage of a lithium metal battery, spiky crystalline structures, called dendrites, form on the metal surface. These dendrites can grow through the liquid electrolyte, reaching the cathode and shorting out the battery.
A worldwide search is on for a solid or semi-solid electrolyte that can prevent dendrite growth while allowing the easy passage of lithium ions without conducting electrons. more>
Posted in Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, Energy, History, Leadership, Nature, Product, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Collaboration, electrolyte, Leadership, Lthium-ion battery, Manufacturing, Technology
PlySim meets composite structural engineering challenges; results include a 500+ percent improvement in modeling productivity, plus a better blade and a growing business
Siemens – According to RenewableUK, the trade and professional body for the United Kingdom (U.K.) wind and marine renewables industries, the U.K. is the windiest country in Europe – so much so that this free fuel could meet the power needs of the country several times over. RenewableUK notes that there are over 4,000 wind turbines currently operational in the U.K., with a total capacity of 7.391 gigawatts (gw), enough to power over 7 million homes. It is estimated that by 2016, there will be 8 gw of offshore capacity installed, with a total of 18 gw by 2020. However, there are significant engineering challenges associated with such substantial growth that companies such as PlySim, based in Edinburgh, U.K., are already successfully addressing.
PlySim Ltd. (Plysim) is a composite structural engineering consultancy, with heavy focus on finite element analysis (FEA). Its main markets are in the renewables sectors (wind, wave and tidal) as well as marine and civil engineering. Malcolm Wadia, director of PlySim, says, “We work with clients worldwide on the analysis of large complex structures in composite materials, having materials tested if necessary, developing the whole structural design prior to analysis, and providing certification reports and full-scale test specifications for each design, if required. Ultimately, we provide the 2D ply layup and production drawings.” more>