Category Archives: How to

Everyone wants to “teach a man to fish.” But skills training alone doesn’t help the world’s poor.

By Kelsey Piper – Skills training programs take a lot of forms, but there are generally two kinds: programs aimed at individuals, which try to teach them everything they’ll need to take higher-paying local jobs, and programs aimed at business owners and prospective business owners, which try to teach them skills to run a business more efficiently and expand their operations.

Their objectives are laudable, but there’s just one problem: They largely don’t work.

Participation rates in the programs aren’t very high. People who do participate often drop out, if the program lasts more than a few days, and unsurprisingly, it’s hard to teach important results in that time. For that matter, participants might be right to ignore the program or drop out, as research suggests that the programs don’t reliably increase income.

This isn’t to say every skills training program is ineffective. But even the programs that do show results often don’t stand up to cost-benefit analysis: The results they get are worse than if they just gave people the money that is spent on training them.

That said, recent research has found cost-effective results for programs that take a combined approach: training and mentoring, plus direct grants of assets. Those programs, more than just pure skill-training approaches, look to be worth further study and investment going forward. more>

Why Brexit Won’t Cure Britain’s Broken Economic Model

By Simon Deakin – The critical thing with Brexit is to think about trade and regulation as being two sides of the same coin. When we talk about international trade we are really asking, which regulatory regime do we want to sign up to?

Inside the single market there is high degree of harmonization and convergence of rules, or what is sometimes called alignment. Regulatory alignment is the condition of frictionless trade in the European single market. It is a uniquely deep international trading arrangement because of the high degree of regulatory compliance that goes with EU membership.

We can’t achieve regulatory autonomy post-Brexit without giving up frictionless trade. So UK policy makers have to think about the consequences of moving away from the single market.

The first impact will be felt in those industries which rely upon regulatory alignment in order to function. For the car industry, and large manufacturers like Airbus, European supply chains will be very negatively affected by regulatory divergence.

That is why it is not surprising to hear that the car companies are going to put their production on hold if there is a prospect of a hard Brexit. They have said that they will pause their production lines for a while to see how their new supply chain arrangements can work. That will have a very serious impact on jobs.

Restrictions on migration from the EU after the transition period ends will not result in more jobs for British workers. The British government is likely to extend bespoke arrangements to allow firms in sectors such as agriculture, hospitality and construction to employ foreign workers outside the scope of British labor laws.

In some sectors, employers faced with rising wage costs are likely to respond by investing in labor-saving technologies, but that while this will improve productivity, it will not lead to net job creation. more>

Commercializing 5G: How to use standards and testing for success

By Kalyan Sundhar – The standards that dictate how 5G systems should work and interoperate were released earlier this year from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in an eagerly awaited update. The new telecommunications standards cleared the way for those planning to develop, build, or leverage 5G technology.

It is clear that a great deal of thought went into the development of the latest versions of the 5G standards to spur the growth of the 5G market and deliver new opportunities. Technology that follows these standards will ensure that the reliability of these networks is much more stable as it fills in the new market gaps.

This new version of the standards has opened the door for stand-alone (SA) 5G networks that do not rely on 4G for 5G signaling and kicking off a frantic rush to own the 5G market. While 4G networks are still available for added support, companies that do not have an existing 4G infrastructure can build their 5G deployments from scratch. This is due to a section of the standards that governs 4G handovers through interweaving 5G cells with existing 4G deployments.

The standards are only the foundation that will support the development of the 5G industry, but there is still plenty of work needed by companies to get it right. What that will look like is up to individual interpretation as there are gaps in the guidelines that make up the new standards. Interoperability will continue to be a challenge as organizations implement proprietary visions for 5G within those gaps. more>

Updates from Adobe

All the Colors of Beauty
By Brendan Seibel – Marilyn Monroe standing on a subway grate, her white dress billowing around her hips—it’s an iconic Hollywood image. That immortal scene from The Seven Year Itch has inspired countless tributes and parodies over the years.

Artist Tya Alisa Anthony was researching the history of Black media when she came across an old Jet magazine cover featuring Donna Summer re-creating Monroe’s peek-a-boo pose.

Anthony’s parents had collected the weekly digest when she was a child, but re-examining back issues revealed a disconnect between the magazine’s eye-catching covers and its articles on Black agency and pride.

“These women were not being recognized or respected as Black women,” says Anthony. “They were representing European ideals, highlighted with stories like ‘Are Black Women Getting More Attractive?’ or ‘Stripper to Singer.’

It didn’t settle right with me, attempting to connect to the women on the covers.”

The portrait series Complexion is Anthony’s response. more>

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Updates from Chicago Booth

The secrets of shopping
By Amy Merrick – A woman suffering from a headache walks into a drugstore. She faces a shelf of remedies: mostly bottles of branded aspirin, such as Bayer. Next to those colorful, heavily advertised boxes are store-brand packages of generic aspirin. The woman puts the generic into her basket and goes home.

A quartet of researchers find that she’s not alone, as sophisticated shoppers—such as doctors or pharmacists, the people most likely to know whether the extra few dollars spent on a brand are worth it—opt to buy generic headache drugs more often.

In fact, a doctor or pharmacist is 18 percentage points more likely than the typical shopper to buy a private-label headache remedy. The magnitude of the difference surprised one of the researchers, Matthew Gentzkow, Richard O. Ryan Professor of Economics and Neubauer Family Faculty Fellow at Chicago Booth.

“The effects are really big across a lot of health-care categories,” Gentzkow says. The researchers estimate that if all US consumers were to start shopping like pharmacists, they could save a collective $410 million a year on headache remedies. more>

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Updates from Autodesk

Design Master Electrical
Design Master Software – Design Master Electrical is a complete electrical drafting and calculation software program that works directly inside AutoCAD. It is compatible with AutoCAD 2004 to 2019.

Engineers across the country are using it to complete their designs faster, easier, and with fewer errors.

You “accomplish more work in less time, with greater accuracy,” says Angie Hester of Trindera Engineering in Coeur d’Alene, ID.

“There’s never a disconnect of information between drawings and schedules,” explains Donald Evans of Evans Engineering and Consulting in Post Falls, ID. more>

Platform Work – Breaking Barriers Or Breaking Bad?

By Irene Mandl – In the abstract, platform work is the matching of supply and demand for paid work through an online platform. In practice, most people are likely to have encountered it through big online platforms such as Uber, Deliveroo or Amazon Mechanical Turk. This is a new form employment that began to emerge in Europe about a decade ago. And while it is still small in scale – estimates of the percentage of workers employed by platforms are in single digits – it is growing relentlessly.

New platforms are constantly starting up, changing their business models and sinking into obscurity. But some have gained a solid foothold and look likely to be around for some time to come.

Increasing numbers of workers are attracted to working this way – for some, out of necessity as they have no alternative employment opportunities; for others, it’s an easier way to get work than looking for a standard job. Some use it as a way to earn extra income on the side – perhaps to pay for a holiday or buy a new car. And some do it simply because they enjoy it – like the designers who use it to showcase their creativity online.

Many try it once and never do it again, others do it regularly but not intensively, and a small proportion of Europeans do platform work as their main income source.

It is growing thanks in part to the ever-expanding variety of tasks being mediated through platforms. At one end are the online micro-tasks – click-work – that do not require particular skills, such as tagging photos. At the other are larger projects commissioned from highly skilled professionals.

The tendency of platform work to encroach on existing areas of business has sparked debate in many EU member states and attracted media attention – the backlash of food-delivery riders against platforms like Deliveroo or Foodora or of traditional taxi companies against Uber have been widely reported.

Platform work does not fit into traditional economic and labour market structures, and is challenging the institutions and legislation built around them. Courts in various countries have been asked to decide whether or not this business model creates unfair competition for traditional operators and whether it circumvents labor law. more>

Negative capability

By Paul Tritschler – The unconscious can perform astonishing feats of memory, but it can also play a remarkable role in creativity: sudden insights, solutions and life-enhancing ideas sometimes surface unbidden when the mind is adrift in unconscious reverie. If such chance awakenings are possible, how can you replicate those conditions to become more the author, and less the reporter, of your own meaningful life story? To find that elusive voice, we’ve got to search in the ‘now’, in the moment of true, lived experience that fleetingly exists between past and future. It is within that space that we must seek the locus of personal transformation and change.

But being in the moment, developing an awareness of ‘now’, means gaining control over our thoughts and the unconscious patterning of memory so that they don’t intrude. If we can’t wrestle control over things, then something has gone awry in the master-servant relationship – there is truth in the old aphorism: ‘The mind is an excellent servant but a terrible master.’

To overcome this complex bind, we must identify how the mind constrains us, and then we must break free. Among the traps of the mind, there is preoccupation with the past (including attachment to intrusive memories) and preoccupation with the future (including continual desire). By definition, these lures are incompatible with being in the moment. We must offload this excess baggage to glimpse what we are and what we might become. more>

The Finnish Basic Income Experiment – Correcting The Narrative

By Jurgen De Wispelaere, Antti Halmetoja and Ville-Veikko Pulkka – The Finnish government’s refusal to extend or expand the experiment may not come as much of a surprise once the budgetary implications are taken into account but it nevertheless amounts to one more disappointment amongst those closely watching how the experiment is progressing. And disappointments have been plentiful with this project.

After a promising start, the first blow came when the Sipilä government ignored most of the suggestions and recommendations of the research consortium led by Kela (the Social Insurance Institution of Finland) and charged with preparing the experimental design — incidentally, appointed by the very same Juha Sipilä.

The design now being rolled out is much more limited than many had hoped for. Repeated requests for additional budget or postponing the starting date were ignored. Much-needed coordination between the different ministries involved was not forthcoming. The government also delayed appointing the team charged with evaluating the result until the experiment was well into its second year – with detrimental effects for any attempt to gain a more comprehensive insight into the experiment’s wellbeing effects. more>

Updates from Georgia Tech

Finally, a Robust Fuel Cell that Runs on Methane at Practical Temperatures
By Ben Brumfield – Fuel cells have not been particularly known for their practicality and affordability, but that may have just changed. There’s a new cell that runs on cheap fuel at temperatures comparable to automobile engines and which slashes materials costs.

Though the cell is in the lab, it has high potential to someday electrically power homes and perhaps cars, say the researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology who led its development. In a new study in the journal Nature Energy the researchers detailed how they reimagined the entire fuel cell with the help of a newly invented fuel catalyst.

The catalyst has dispensed with high-priced hydrogen fuel by making its own out of cheap, readily available methane. And improvements throughout the cell cooled the seething operating temperatures that are customary in methane fuel cells dramatically, a striking engineering accomplishment. more>

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