Category Archives: Media

The Future of Work — 3 Mega-Trends

By Graham Brown-Martin – Technology is just part of a broader spectrum of human activity and social change is driven by society rather than machines, that is, we have agency to act independently and make free choices.

The path of innovation and its social consequences are almost entirely shaped by society as a result of numerous social factors such as culture, politics, regulatory mechanisms and economic arrangements. The latter one is particularly apposite given the post-WWII obsession with neoclassical economics, as taught in most universities.

Political decisions supported by economic frameworks have excluded citizens from the discourse and, as a result, are now unraveling across the western world. It turns out that the things we value most are the things that are difficult or impossible to measure.

This obsession for economics and measuring what could be measured and ignoring what it couldn’t gave us global agencies such as the World Bank, IMF and OECD.

But these organizations have been unable to apply their frameworks, wedded as they are to a single metric of GDP, to the worlds most pressing challenges such as climate change, increasing population or growing inequalities, rather they have exacerbated them. more> https://goo.gl/DywzVb

In defense of hierarchy

By Stephen C Angle, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Julian Baggini, Daniel Bell, Nicolas Berggruen, Mark Bevir, Joseph Chan, Carlos Fraenkel, Stephen Macedo, Michael Puett, Jiang Qian, Mathias Risse, Carlin Romano, Justin Tiwald and Robin Wang – Good and permissible hierarchies are everywhere around us.

Yet hierarchy is an unfashionable thing to defend or to praise.

We live in a time when no distinction is drawn between justified and useful hierarchies on the one hand, and self-interested, exploitative elites on the other.

First, bureaucratic hierarchies can serve democracy. Bureaucracy is even less popular these days than hierarchy. Yet bureaucratic hierarchies can instantiate crucial democratic values, such as the rule of law and equal treatment.

There are at least three ways in which usually hierarchical constitutional institutions can enhance democracy: by protecting minority rights, and thereby ensuring that the basic interests of minorities are not lightly discounted by self-interested or prejudiced majorities; by curbing the power of majority or minority factions to pass legislation favoring themselves at the expense of the public good; and by increasing the epistemic resources that are brought to bear on decision-making, making law and policy more reflective of high-quality deliberation. Hence democracies can embrace hierarchy because hierarchy can enhance democracy itself.

Yet in recent decades, these civic hierarchies have been dismantled and often replaced with decentralized, competitive markets, all in the name of efficiency. This makes sense only if efficiency and effectiveness (usually assumed to be measured in economic terms) are considered the overriding priorities.

But if we make that assumption, we find ourselves giving less weight to values such as the rule of law, democratic legitimacy or social equality. Hence, we might sometimes prefer the democratically accountable hierarchies that preserve those values even over optimal efficiency. more> https://goo.gl/PDDv12

The rise of personalist rule

By Torrey Taussig – Over the last decade, authoritarians have pushed back against the world’s prevailing democratic order. For the 11th year in a row, Freedom House has announced an overall drop in freedom worldwide.

Most countries today (55 percent) are considered not free or partly free according to the civil liberties and political rights citizens enjoy. At the same time, highly personalized regimes are taking control of autocratic and even democratic political systems.

There are four primary reasons that personalist systems can lead to more aggressive foreign policies.

First, the inherent characteristics of the kinds of individuals who become personalist rulers—ambitious, cut-throat and divisive—drive them to pursue more adventurist international goals than leaders of other kinds of regimes.

Second, personalist leaders perceive lower costs of fighting than leaders of democracies or more constrained autocratic systems because they have fewer normative aversions to force, do not internalize the costs of fighting, and view force as more effective than other tools of statecraft.

Third, personalist leaders do not fear defeat to the extent that other leaders do because of the lack of strong institutions able to punish the leader for his mistakes.

Fourth, subordinates to personalist leaders are typically unwilling to challenge a leader’s personal biases, leading to profound “groupthink” and overestimation of the likelihood of victory. more> https://goo.gl/D32rxA

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The future of the open internet — and our way of life — is in your hands

By Quincy Larson – So far, the story of the internet has followed the same tragic narrative that’s befallen other information technologies over the past 160 years:

  • the telegram
  • the telephone
  • cinema
  • radio
  • television

Each of these had roughly the same story arc:

  1. Inventors discovered the technology.
  2. Hobbyists pioneered the applications of that technology, and popularized it.
  3. Corporations took notice. They commercialized the technology, refined it, and scaled it.
  4. Once the corporations were powerful enough, they tricked the government into helping them lock the technology down. They installed themselves as “natural monopolies.”
  5. After a long period of stagnation, a new technology emerged to disrupt the old one. Sometimes this would dislodging the old monopoly. But sometimes it would only further solidify them.

And right now, we’re in step 4 the open internet’s narrative. We’re surrounded by monopolies.

The problem is that we’ve been in step 4 for decades now. And there’s no step 5 in sight. The creative destruction that the Economist Joseph Schumpeter first observed in the early 1900s has yet to materialize. more> https://goo.gl/dFd7MK

The identity threat

By Teri Takai – The big problem for many government agencies is that most of them still rely on declarative legacy roles, rubber-stamping certifications and manual processes to manage identities and roles — all of which expose them to continual and multiple access risks. External threat actors compromise identities to evade detection from existing defenses, while insiders work under the radar to access data for exfiltration.

To provide a robust defense and protect the identity-based perimeter, government agencies must consider new thinking and approaches.

The core issue is security leaders are not attacking the evolving security landscape through proactive planning and change management. Instead, they are stuck in a reactive mode.

It is not hard to understand why: the user profile is 24-7, global, instantaneous, and rich in consumer-driven IT. more> https://goo.gl/X59JUA

America Needs a Crash Course in Critical Thinking

By Tom Jacobs – Newly published research suggests we need to develop an often-overlooked but vitally important skill: critical thinking.

Two North Carolina State University scholars report that, once students learned to apply healthy skepticism to one realm of knowledge, they were less likely to accept questionable claims in an unrelated field.

The history class “contained direct instruction on critical thinking,” including the use of famed astronomer Carl Sagan’s “baloney detection kit.”

“Students also learned common logical fallacies, fallacies of rhetoric, tropes in historical myths, and then applied them to course topics,” the researchers write.

At the end of the semester, all students were again tested on their belief in scientifically unproven claims. While attitudes did not significantly change among those who took the research methods course, those in the history course were less likely to support baseless assertions. more> https://goo.gl/g1h1km

From bedroom to boardroom, Supreme Court is in your business

By Nancy Benac – The influence of the court’s nine justices is hard to overstate. So pay attention as Congress prepares to take up the nomination of Judge Neil Gorsuch to join the high court.

From the time Americans roll out of bed in the morning until they turn in, the court’s rulings are woven into daily life in ways large and small.

“From the air you breathe and the water you drink to the roof over your head and the person across from you in bed, the Supreme Court touches all of that,” says Elizabeth Wydra, president of the Constitutional Accountability Center.

A walk through daily life on the lookout for Supreme Court fingerprints … more> https://goo.gl/ykUXDt

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The dangers of ultra-long-term bonds

By Judd Gregg – The dollar is the key to world commerce. It is used by most nations as their reserve currency. It is essentially other countries’ insurance against their governments pursuing profligate fiscal policy.

This fact would possibly make the sale of 50- or 100-year U.S. bonds acceptable in the world market. But it should also give us significant pause.

If we want our currency to be the reserve currency of choice around the world, then we need that currency to be respected.

If we start issuing general obligation bonds that have 50- or 100-year terms, we will inevitably call into question the long-term integrity of our nation’s fiscal house. Financing current expenses for 5, 10 or even 30 years may be an accepted practice, but to go out 50 or 100 years is not. more> https://goo.gl/t5bjEg

There’s a Green Card-holder at the heart of Greek philosophy

By David V Johnson – A state that, without due process, simply ignores the rights and obligations it has extended to that legal resident makes a serious breach of its moral authority and the rule of law.

This is why the state’s treatment of its non-citizen legal residents – its visa-holders and permanent resident aliens – can say as much about its health as its treatment of citizens.

The idea that the non-citizen resident is crucial to diagnosing the state’s health is evident in Plato’s Republic.

In the course of the Republic‘s 10 books, Socrates offers a considered analysis of justice and the ideally just state. It can be simplified to one principle: justice is reason ruling.

When rationality rules in government, the state is just. Similarly, when rationality governs the emotions and desires of the soul, a person is just.

When reason fails to rule, whether in the state or the person, injustice obtains. more> https://goo.gl/oTURh3

Cutting the Gordian Knot of Privacy

By Maj. Gen. Earl D. Matthews – Europe has leapfrogged the United States in this arena and leads the way in defining privacy laws. Last year, the European Parliament approved the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which strengthens and unifies data protection laws for individuals within the European Union. Enforcement of the GDPR will begin in 2018, and organizations not in compliance will face heavy penalties, such as fines of up to 4 percent of annual gross revenue or 20 million euros, whichever is greater.

Some experts have declared that privacy in the digital realm is dead. I beg to differ. It might be in an evolutionary state, but privacy is unquestionably not dead. It is not mutually exclusive to either the private or public sector, to economic development or national security. Privacy remains a fundamental expectation for individuals. America’s expectation of privacy is a permanent challenge requiring national resolve and continued response.

Additionally, asking the right questions is perhaps the most important consideration to move the discussion forward.

Why do people fail to read privacy policies?

If they do read and understand them, then why do they often lack enough experience to make an informed choice?

Why do privacy policies often serve more as a liability disclaimer for the government and industry than as a guarantee of privacy for citizens and consumers?

Adopting transparent data privacy and protection policies that are brief, well-stated and clear-cut might be a good start to addressing these questions. more> https://goo.gl/K07OB9