Category Archives: Net

Updates from ITU

How can we ensure safety and public trust​ in AI for automated and assisted driving?
ITU News – Cars are becoming increasingly automated. Drivers already benefit from a wide range of advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS), such as lane keeping, adaptive cruise control, collision warning, and blind spot warning, which are gradually becoming standard features on most vehicles.

Today’s automated systems are taking over an increasing amount of responsibility for the driving task. It is expected that soon, sensors will take the place of human impulse, and artificial intelligence (AI) will substitute for human intelligence.

This process is defined through various level steps, from low levels of automation where the driver retains overall control of the vehicle in level 1, to a fully-autonomous system in level 5.

10 years ago, manufacturers predicted many cars on today’s roads would be fully automated, but it still remains a distant future for the automotive industry. At the recent Future Networked Car Symposium 2020 at ITU Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, top experts joined a panel entitled ‘AI for autonomous and assisted driving – how to ensure safety and public trust’ to discuss the progress and the prospects for vehicles that drive themselves – and how we might achieve this future. more>

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Updates from Ciena

Single-wave 400G across 4,000km? Yes – with Ciena’s new Waveserver 5.
Ciena’s popular family of Waveserver products just got a new member – Waveserver 5. With tunable capacity up to 800G and support for 400GbE services at any distance, learn how Waveserver 5 is already setting new industry benchmarks – in live networks.

By Kent Jordan – Two mega-trends have been driving rapid innovation in optical networks. Advanced coherent technology brings the promise of greater network capacity, now reaching up to 800G across short links and 400G at distance. At the same time, new compact modular platforms promise greater density, reduced footprint and lower energy consumption.

What if you could combine this incredible performance and awesome density into one device? Sounds too good to be true, right?

Well not anymore. Ciena’s most advanced coherent technology, WaveLogicTM 5 Extreme, has arrived in the newest member of our Waveserver family of interconnect platforms: Waveserver 5. And, it’s bringing the performance you need, packaged in a compact and efficient footprint.

Combining the world’s most innovative coherent chipset with the simple, server-like operational model the Waveserver family is known for, Waveserver 5 provides network operators with industry-leading transport economics for high-capacity, high-growth applications.

Internet2 will be one of Ciena’s first customers to deploy Waveserver 5. They are building out their next-generation research and education (R&E) network across the U.S. and they have selected Ciena’s best, most flexible, open and highest-performance technologies to do the job. more>

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Updates from Adobe

Jimmie Robinson & the Teenage Heroes of East Oakland
By Jane Selle Morgan – Jimmie started this cover-to-cover practice as a kid, drawing what he saw on television. “I would create one scene,” he remembers, “and then I would create another scene, and I didn’t even know it, but I was creating sequential artwork at the time. I would staple them all together to make my own books.”

Jimmie is a California native who grew up in Oakland, so it tugged his hometown heart strings to learn that advocacy group ​Oakland Kids First was looking to produce an original comic book as part of a statewide initiative. Oakland Kids First wanted a​ fun and visually engaging community resource to communicate complicated issues that continue to oppress and challenge the everyday lives of the people of East Oakland—and the group needed an artist to bring it to life. ​Jimmie applied and was quickly chosen to illustrate the book.

In this ​mini-documentary​, you’ll meet Jimmie and hear about his process, while getting to know more about the perspective of Jimmie, Oakland Kids First, and the four high school kids sharing their experiences while collaborating on the Town Force One Comic Book. more>

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Hard truths about the eurozone crisis

There has been little honest reflection within the European Commission about the eurozone crisis. Until now.
By Adam Tooze – It is not often one finds European officials quoting significant moments from pop culture, let alone an outgoing director-general for economic and financial affairs—the European Commission’s most senior economics official—quoting Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner. But that is how Marco Buti introduces a recent piece summing up his period in office between 2008 and 2019.

Buti’s contribution is significant as personal reflection but also because it raises the more general question of how the EU and its institutions will commemorate the tenth anniversary of the eurozone crisis.

When it came to revisiting the global financial crisis, Brussels did not hold back. In August 2017, to mark the tenth anniversary of its onset, the commission issued a statement blaming the spillover to Europe on the United States and giving itself credit for prompt action to stave off the worst. The press release was however issued on August 9th—anniversary of the failure of the French bank Paribas’ US property funds.

Subprime and Lehman could be safely blamed on the US. What, however, will the European institutions make of the ten-year anniversary of the eurozone crisis and its various phases between 2010 and 2015?

Last year, addressing the European Parliament on the 20th anniversary of the introduction of the euro, the then commission president, Jean-Claude Juncker, admitted there had been a lack of solidarity with Greece. He acknowledged there had been ‘reckless austerity’ (l’austérité irréfléchie). But he had the gall to suggest that the commission had succumbed to the influence of the International Monetary Fund, as though the agenda of austerity and ‘structural reform’ had been imposed from outside.

The traumatic history of the last ten years deserves better. more>

Updates from McKinsey

How to restart your stalled digital transformation
Most digital initiatives sputter before they take full effect. A new survey finds that organizations stand a good chance of recovering lost momentum because slowdowns typically happen for reasons within their control.
McKinsey – At organizations pursuing digital transformations, more than seven in ten survey respondents say the progress of these efforts has slowed or stalled at some point. In the latest McKinsey Global Survey on the topic, we set out to understand what organizations can do to prevent burnout or to restart their engines if burnout occurs during these transformations, which previous research has found have a lower success rate than do more traditional transformations. The good news is that in most cases, organizations can prevent or overcome a loss of momentum.

More than 60 percent of respondents who report stalled digital transformations attribute the problem to factors that—with the right discipline and focus—organizations can control in the near term to medium term. This finding runs counter to widespread assumptions that external pressures, such as market disruptions or regulatory changes, pose the biggest threats to digital initiatives. More commonly reported sources of derailed progress include resourcing issues, lack of clarity or alignment on a company’s digital strategy, and poor quality of the digital strategy to begin with.

If a digital transformation stalls, the results suggest that organizations can regain momentum by implementing rigorous change-management and internal-communications programs and clarifying the transformation’s projected impact, which can help build alignment and commitment. For scaling digital programs beyond the pilot phase—the first stumbling block in a transformation’s execution—clarity on the time frame and expected economic impact is important, as is partnering with operations. Should an intervention be needed to reenergize a transformation, having the CEO step in appears to be advantageous. Further lessons come from respondents at companies that avoid stalling in the first place. They often say their organizations maintain momentum by obtaining strong alignment and strategic clarity before a transformation gets under way. more>

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Updates from Siemens

Digitalization takes off in aerospace
By Indrakanti Chakravarthy – When you think about it, the basic mechanics behind aviation has remained the same throughout the decades.

Whether you’re talking about the B-52 Bomber from the mid-1950s. …The Concord SST that whisked folks across the Atlantic. …Or even the much-loved NASA Space Shuttle program. So many wonderful examples of how humans have taken flight over the years.

And here’s the thing – generations of engineers for the past 50 years or so have designed and built aircraft using pretty much the same methods and disciplines.

But all that’s about to change…

Today, with digitalization and the use of the digital twin for aircraft design, development and manufacturing – we are seeing a major shift on how modern aircraft are being designed and built. For the first time ever, the future of flight is boundless. There is no horizon on what we can or cannot do. [VIDEO] more>

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Technology and the future of growth: Challenges of change

By Zia Qureshi – Economic growth has been lackluster for more than a decade now. This has occurred at a time when economies have faced much unfolding change. What are the forces of change, how are they affecting the growth dynamics, and what are the implications for policy? A recently published book, “Growth in a Time of Change,” addresses these questions.

Three basic ingredients drive economic growth—productivity, capital, and labor. All three are facing new challenges in a changing context. Foremost among the drivers of change has been technology, spearheaded by digital transformation.

Productivity is the main long-term propeller of economic growth. Technology-enabled innovation is the major spur to productivity growth. Yet, paradoxically, productivity growth has slowed as digital technologies have boomed. Among advanced economies over the past 15 years or so, it has averaged less than half of the pace of the previous 15 years. Firms at the technological frontier have reaped major productivity gains, but the impact on productivity more widely across firms has been weak. The new technologies have tended to produce winners-take-most outcomes. Dominant firms have acquired more market power, market structures have become less competitive, and business dynamism has declined.

Investment also has been weak in most major economies. The persistent weakness of investment despite historically low interest rates has prompted concerns about the risk of “secular stagnation.” Weak productivity growth and investment have reinforced each other and are linked by similar shifts in market structures and dynamics.

Technology is having profound effects on labor markets. Automation and digital advances are shifting labor demand away from routine low- to middle-level skills to higher-level and more sophisticated analytical, technical, and managerial skills. On the supply side, however, equipping workers with skills that complement the new technologies has lagged, hindering the broader diffusion of innovation within economies. Education and training have been losing the race with technology. more>

Operation Tech Transfer

By Brian A. Weiss – The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a world-class research organization. We have phenomenal scientists and engineers with impeccable research credentials. Our researchers are experts in a range of fields including artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, fire, forensics, infrastructure, manufacturing and public safety. They are constantly pushing the boundaries of theoretical and applied research. I am often in awe when I learn of the new groundbreaking results my colleagues achieve.

However, while we do great research, we don’t stop there. Our work doesn’t end until our target stakeholders, the American taxpayers, put our technologies and capabilities to work for themselves, so they can grow their businesses, be more profitable, and thrive on the world stage.

What I’m talking about is technology transfer. Simply put, technology transfer is the activity of packaging research into industry-consumable pieces, broadcasting the research to the appropriate communities, and promoting the adoption of these new technologies. I’m a big fan of technology transfer, and I’m thrilled to share my experiences with you!

It all starts with my research. more>

The future will be shaped by what global productivity growth does next

By Warwick J. McKibbin and Adam Triggs – Productivity growth is a shadow of its former self. It’s one-tenth of what it was 40 years ago in advanced economies, and even emerging economies are struggling to replicate the growth of the past. As the fundamental driver of long-run living standards, weak productivity growth is a serious problem. Lower living standards, bigger budget deficits, fewer jobs, lower wages, and higher inequality await if things don’t improve.

What is most striking about this period of low productivity is that it coincides with enormous advances in technology. An extra 3.5 billion people have gained access to the internet. The processing power of computers has increased exponentially while their cost and size have plummeted. Smartphones have multiplied, and online businesses have flourished. Email, GPS and advanced software have become widespread. The sharing economy is unlocking the full potential of idle cars and empty rooms and houses. Information and communication technologies (ICT) and artificial intelligence (AI) have reshaped many industries. The accumulated history of human knowledge is now at our fingertips.

Robert Solow famously remarked that “you can see the computer age everywhere but in the productivity statistics.” Economists have put forward a variety of explanations for the so-called “Solow paradox,” each of which implies a radically different path for productivity growth in the future. Our chapter in the just-published book “Growth in a Time of Change” models each of these possible scenarios to explore what the world might look like depending on who turns out to be correct.

Let’s start with the optimists. Some economists, like the 2018 Nobel Laureate William Nordhaus and Iraj Saniee and his co-authors at Nokia Bell Labs, point to historical data showing long lag times between technological advances and increases in productivity. For these economists, a big surge in productivity is just around the corner.

If the optimists are correct and global productivity growth takes off rapidly, many of the world’s problems go away. Investment, wages, and employment rise sharply. GDP increases and inequality declines. While all sectors experience an investment boom, the durable goods sector experiences the largest increase. The sharp increase in investment sees an increased demand for investment goods, particularly durable manufactured goods and the energy and mining resources required to produce them. Countries that export durable manufactured goods (such as Germany) and energy and mining resources (such as Australia) benefit significantly. Secular stagnation becomes a thing of the past.

But new challenges emerge. The global economy is a closed system, so the resources to finance this boom in investment and production must come from somewhere: either from increased government savings or from reductions in current consumption. If governments don’t act, or if financial market rigidities prevent access to global capital markets, consumption can fall. The shock also triggers transitions that require the redeployment of labor and capital from declining sectors to booming ones. Rigid labor markets and oligopolistic product markets hamper this adjustment. Thus, the full benefits of the boom can be squandered, and its benefits may be short-lived and distributed more unequally between capital and labor.

Now consider the pessimists. Some economists, notably Northwestern University’s Robert Gordon, argue that the technological advances in recent decades won’t deliver the sort of productivity increases that we saw from the inventions of the last century. Facebook and Netflix are great, but they are no match for electricity and indoor plumbing. more>

Updates from Chicago Booth

The populism puzzle
What caused the uprising that has transformed global politics?
By Hal Weitzman – When UK voters elected a Conservative government in December 2019, they effectively re-endorsed their view, expressed in a referendum three years prior, that Britain should leave the European Union. The news was celebrated by, among others, US president Donald Trump, who drew a parallel with his own attempt to be reelected in 2020 by tweeting, in a paraphrase of comments by Fox News host Steve Hilton, “Here in America it will be the same victory as BREXIT, but even more so.”

The 2016 Brexit referendum, and its transatlantic counterpart—Donald Trump’s victory in that year’s US presidential race—surprised opinion pollsters, and prompted many observers to question conventional political thinking. This more-recent UK election, and a US presidential campaign that has so far been dominated by candidates on the edges of the political spectrum, demonstrates that political populism is a still-potent force. Two of the world’s most stable and well-established democracies appear to have embraced populism and shunned globalization, which has led to much soul-searching about the future of liberal democracy.

The results have also challenged economic thinking, and Chicago Booth’s Lubos Pastor and Pietro Veronesi have been among the researchers studying the implications. “As economists, we have been taught to think that globalization is good, because people get to specialize, and you have free trade, and that’s a way of making somebody better off without making anybody worse off,” says Pastor. “Yet here—with the Trump and Brexit votes—you saw half the population rebelling. You saw the median voter turning against globalization.”

The real puzzle is this: Why did the United States and the United Kingdom turn to populism at a time of economic growth? more>

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