Looking Back in Time to Watch for a Different Kind of Black Hole
By John Toon – Black holes form when stars die, allowing the matter in them to collapse into an extremely dense object from which not even light can escape. Astronomers theorize that massive black holes could also form at the birth of a galaxy, but so far nobody has been able to look far enough back in time to observe the conditions creating these direct collapse black holes (DCBH).
The James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled for launch in 2021, might be able look far enough back into the early Universe to see a galaxy hosting a nascent massive black hole. Now, a simulation done by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology has suggested what astronomers should look for if they search the skies for a DCBH in its early stages.
DCBH formation would be initiated by the collapse of a large cloud of gas during the early formation of a galaxy, said John H. Wise, a professor in Georgia Tech’s School of Physics and the Center for Relativistic Astrophysics. But before astronomers could hope to catch this formation, they would have to know what to look for in the spectra that the telescope could detect, which is principally infrared.
Black holes take about a million years to form, a blip in galactic time. In the DCBH simulation, that first step involves gas collapsing into a supermassive star as much as 100,000 times more massive than our sun. The star then undergoes gravitational instability and collapses into itself to form a massive black hole. Radiation from the black hole then triggers the formation of stars over period of about 500,000 years, the simulation suggested. more>
- Synthetic Organelle Shows How Tiny Puddle-Organs in our Cells Work, Ben Brumfield
- 3D-Printed Tracheal Splints Used in Groundbreaking Pediatric Surgery, John Toon
- Summer Lab Experience Helps Launch Industry and Research Careers, John Toon
- Trailblazing Molecular Jungles with New Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Consortium, Ben Brumfield, Maureen Rouhi
- Buzzing Cancer Drugs into Malignancies in the Brain, Ben Brumfield
- Boron Nitride Separation Process Could Facilitate Higher Efficiency Solar Cells, John Toon
- Genomic Study of 412 Anthrax Strains Provides New Virulence Clues, John Toon
- Control System Simulator Helps Operators Learn to Fight Hackers, John Toon
- Dehydration Alters Human Brain Shape and Activity, Slackens Task Performance, Ben Brumfield
- Laughing Gas May Have Helped Warm Early Earth and Given Breath to Life, Ben Brumfield
- More Workers Working Might Not Get More Work Done, Ants (and Robots) Show, John Toon
- Erasing Stop Signs: ShapeShifter Shows Self-Driving Cars Can Still Be Manipulated, Kristen Perez
- New Research Center for Atlanta, Holly Korschun
- Silica May Have Helped Form Protein Precursors in Prebiotic Earth, A. Maureen Rouhi
- Cracking the Cancer Code, Georgia Parmelee
- Georgia Tech Award Equips Coda’s Data Center with New Supercomputer
Posted in Business, Economy, Education, Energy & emissions, Healthcare, History, Nature, Net, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Earth, Electronics, Georgia Tech, Internet, Physics, Productivity, Technology
Human Factors Research Helps Accelerate Mission Planning
By John Toon – The key to a successful flight mission is planning – sometimes several hours of it. Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) specialists in human factors and human computer interfaces are working with NAVAIR PMA-281, Strike Planning and Execution Systems in Patuxent River, Maryland, to streamline the current mission planning process and identify user interface requirements supporting multi-domain mission management in next-generation naval planning capabilities.
With guidance from the GTRI researchers, the project will improve usability of the mission planning software tools, creating a more consistent and intuitive screen design that’s easier to learn and more logical to follow. This effort could benefit all Department of Defense (DoD) agencies for collaborative mission planning.
“We are working with Navy and Marine Corps aviators to identify areas in mission planning where work-flow can be streamlined, reducing the time required to mission plan,” said Marcia Crosland, project director for GTRI’s Joint Mission Planning System (JMPS) User Interface Design and Usability efforts. “Our task has been to define the user interface concepts and decision-making tools to help reduce the time required for mission planning. We’ve created detailed designs and specifications to direct current and future development of mission planning systems.” more>
- Faster Detection, Cleanup of Network Infections are Goals of $12.8 Million Project, John Toon
- Robot Teaches Itself How to Dress People, Jason Maderer
- Wearable Ring, Wristband Allow Users to Control Smart Tech With Hand Gestures, David Mitchell
- Helping the Air Force Search for Actionable Intelligence Worldwide, John Toon
- Flexible, Wearable Oral Sodium Sensor Could Help Improve Hypertension Control, John Toon
- Uncovering a Hidden Protein “Tail” that Puts the Brakes on Cell Signaling, John Toon
- Chemical Octopus Catches Sneaky Cancer Clues, Trace Glycoproteins, Ben Brumfield
- Ultrafast Compression Offers New Way to Get Macromolecules into Cells, John Toon
- Researchers Chosen to Examine Antarctic Glacier at Risk of Collapsing, Jason Maderer
- Remote-Control Shoots Laser at Nano-Gold to Turn on Cancer-Killing Immune Cells, Ben Brumfield
- Severe Storms Research Center Works to Improve Tornado Warning Time, John Toon
- New Technologies are Helping Connect and Protect the Internet of Things, Josh Brown
- Robot Designed to Defend Factories Against Cyberthreats, Josh Brown
- The Next Frontier in Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Parmelee
- A Close Look at Measles Virus Assembly, Quinn Eastman
- Mini-vessel device probes blood interactions in malaria, sickle cell disease, Quinn Eastman
Posted in Broadband, Business, Communication industry, EARTH WATCH, Economy, Education, Healthcare, Media, Net, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology
Tagged Broadband, Business improvement, Earth, Ecology, Georgia Tech, Internet, Mission Planning, Organization, Productivity, Technology
Robot Monitors Chicken Houses and Retrieves Eggs
By John Toon – “Today’s challenge is to teach a robot how to move in environments that have dynamic, unpredictable obstacles, such as chickens,” said Colin Usher, a research scientist in GTRI’s Food Processing Technology Division.
“When busy farmers must spend time in chicken houses, they are losing money and opportunities elsewhere on the farm. In addition, there is a labor shortage when it comes to finding workers to carry out manual tasks such as picking up floor eggs and simply monitoring the flocks. If a robot could successfully operate autonomously in a chicken house 24 hours a day and seven days a week, it could then pick up floor eggs, monitor machinery, and check on birds, among other things. By assigning one robot to each chicken house, we could also greatly reduce the potential for introductions of disease or cross-contamination from one house to other houses.”
The autonomous robot is outfitted with an ultrasonic localization system similar to GPS but more suited to an indoor environment where GPS might not be available. This system uses low-cost, ultrasonic beacons indicating the robot’s orientation and its location in a chicken house. The robot also carries a commercially available time-of-flight camera, which provides three-dimensional (3D) depth data by emitting light signals and then measuring how long they take to return. The localization and 3D data together allow the robot’s software to devise navigation plans around chickens to perform tasks. more>
- Real-Time Captcha Technique Improves Biometric Authentication, John Toon
- Data Detectives Shift Suspicions in Alzheimer’s from Usual Suspect to Inside Villain, Ben Brumfield
- Why Bees Soared and Slime Flopped as Inspirations for Systems Engineering, Ben Brumfield
- Asteroid “Time Capsules” May Help Explain How Life Started on Earth, John Toon
- Georgia Tech Trio Selected to National Academy of Engineering, Jason Maderer/Kay Kinard
- Successful SpaceX Launch Clears Way for Historic Georgia Tech Spacecraft, Jason Maderer
- Hatchet Enzyme, Enabler of Sickness and of Health, Exposed by Neutron Beams, Ben Brumfield
- Neurons Get the Beat and Keep It Going in Drumrolls, Ben Brumfield
- Yeast Assay Helps Reveal Genesis of Amyloids and Prions, A. Maureen Rouhi
- Self-assembled “Hairy” Nanoparticles Could Give a Double Punch to Cancer, John Toon
- Manufacturing Disaster Assistance Program to help Georgia companies prepare for natural disasters, Ben Cheeks
- Disclosing Weaknesses Can Undermine Some Workplace Relationships, Josh Brown
- Maelstroms in the Heart Confirmed
- The Next Frontier in Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Parmelee
- Air Force Grant Enables Quantum Simulation Using Cold Atoms, A. Maureen Rouhi
Posted in EARTH WATCH, Education, Energy & emissions, Healthcare, Nature, Net, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology
Tagged Broadband, Business improvement, Climate change, Earth, Health, Industrial economy, Physics, Productivity, Technology
By Andrew Rush – Just as the early railroads transformed the American West and spurred an economic boom across our then young nation, commercial activity in space is blossoming. Expansion of these activities, especially in-space manufacturing, will expand human activity outward and lead to new American economic booms. While the promise of commercial activities in space may be as vast as the promise of the American West, actions must be taken now in order to stay on the path of converting this promise to economic value.
Much of our current progress in space-based operations such as manufacturing can be credited to the multibillion dollar investment in the creation of International Space Station (ISS) and the designation of the U.S. segment of ISS as a National Lab for conducting space-based research for economic development in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).
With the direct U.S. support of the ISS proposed to end in the 2025 timeframe, there’s an industry imperative to scale up and accelerate planning for transition from ISS to commercial space stations or other Private-Public Partnership (PPP) models.
If action is not taken, investment in the ISS and the ISS National Lab, private investment in ISS-based activity, and budding space-based products and services will be wasted. more>
Posted in Broadband, CONGRESS WATCH, Economic development, Economy, Education, History, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology, Transportation
Tagged Business improvement, Capital, Government, Industrial economy, International Space Station, Manufacturing, Technology, United States
Researchers Boost Efficiency and Stability of Optical Rectennas
By John Toon – The research team that announced the first optical rectenna in 2015 is now reporting a two-fold efficiency improvement in the devices — and a switch to air-stable diode materials. The improvements could allow the rectennas – which convert electromagnetic fields at optical frequencies directly to electrical current – to operate low-power devices such as temperature sensors.
Optical rectennas operate by coupling the light’s electromagnetic field to an antenna, in this case an array of multiwall carbon nanotubes whose ends have been opened. The electromagnetic field creates an oscillation in the antenna, producing an alternating flow of electrons. When the electron flow reaches a peak at one end of the antenna, the diode closes, trapping the electrons, then re-opens to capture the next oscillation, creating a current flow.
The switching must occur at terahertz frequencies to match the light. The junction between the antenna and diode must provide minimal resistance to electrons flowing through it while open, yet prevent leakage while closed.
“The name of the game is maximizing the number of electrons that get excited in the carbon nanotube, and then having a switch that is fast enough to capture them at their peak,” Baratunde Cola, explained. “The faster you switch, the more electrons you can catch on one side of the oscillation.” more>
- Four Georgia Tech Faculty Named IEEE Fellows, Jackie Nemeth
- Sticking to the Schedule was Difficult for Apollo Astronauts, Jason Maderer
- Using Data Mining to Make Sense of Climate Change, Jason Maderer
- Nanostructured Gate Dielectric Boosts Stability of Organic Thin-Film Transistors, John Toon
- Georgia Tech Researchers Awarded $7.5 Million from Office of Naval Research for Secure Stack, Tess Malone
- Hide or Get Eaten, Urine Chemicals Tell Mud Crabs, Ben Brumfield
- Want to Beat Antibiotic-Resistant Superbugs? Rethink Strep Throat Remedies, Ben Brumfield
- Project Will Provide Reaction Kinetics Data for Deterministic Synthesis of Metallic Nanocrystals, John Toon
- WWII Code-Breaking Techniques Inspire Interpretation of Brain Data, Evan Lerner and Ben Brumfield
- One in Five Materials Chemistry Papers May be Wrong, Study Suggests, John Toon
- Piezoelectric Tiles Light the Way for Kennedy Space Center Visitors, John Tibbetts
- Gecko Adhesion Technology Moves Closer To Industrial Uses, Josh Brown
- Nanotexturing Creates Bacteria-Killing Spikes on Stainless Steel Surfaces, John Toon
- Perking Up and Crimping the ‘Bristles’ of Polyelectrolyte Brushes, Ben Brumfield
- Cold Suns, Warm Exoplanets and Methane Blankets, Ben Brumfield
- The Force is Strong: Amputee Controls Individual Prosthetic Fingers, Jason Maderer
- IMPAX Program Accelerates Technology Transition into the Navy, John Toon
- AAAS Honors Cola, Fox and Weitz as Fellows, Ben Brumfield
- A Startup for Every Student, Georgia Parmelee
- The Next Frontier in Industrial Engineering, Georgia Parmelee
Posted in Broadband, EARTH WATCH, Education, Energy & emissions, Healthcare, History, Nature, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Climate change, Earth, Ecology, Georgia Tech, Manufacturing, Technology
Aalto-1 satellite sends first image
By Jaan Praks, Antti Kestilä – Launched on the morning of 23 June from India, the Aalto-1 satellite’s first month in space has gone according to plan.
‘We have run checks on the majority of the satellite’s systems and found that the devices are fully functional,’ Professor Jaan Praks, who is heading the satellite project, explains.
‘We have also downloaded the first image sent by Aalto-1, which is also the first ever image taken from a Finnish satellite. It was taken while on orbit over Norway at an altitude of about 500 kilometres. The image shows the Danish coast as well as a portion of the Norwegian coastline.
Unlike traditional cameras, which measure three colours, the hyperspectral camera is able to measure dozens of freely selected narrow color channels. For this reason, it can be utilised for example in surveying forest types, algae and vegetation and as a tool in geological research. more> https://goo.gl/QGMNGu
Posted in Broadband, Communication industry, EARTH WATCH, Economic development, Economy, Education, Nature, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology
Tagged Aalto University, Business improvement, Earth, Ecology, Leadership, Technology
Boeing – The mission of the Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) system is to provide broadband communications connectivity for U.S. and allied warfighter s around the world. WGS is the highest – capacity military communications system in the U.S. Department of Defense arsenal, providing a quantum leap in communications capability for the U.S. military.
Boeing’s investments in phased array antennas and digital signal processing, combined with innovations in the commercial satellite market, have resulte d in a flexible WGS system that
delivers the capacity, coverage, connectivity and control required by the most demanding operational scenarios.
WGS is designed for coverage, capacity and connectivity, and can process more than 3.6 gigabits per second of data – more than 10 times that of the previous system. Operating at both X-band and Ka-band, the system will enable networks for tactical Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR).
WGS supports communication links throughout the allocated 500 MHz of X-band and 1 GHz of Ka-band spectrum. Through frequency reuse and digital channelization, each WGS payload can exploit more than 4.8 GHz of usable communications bandwidth. more> boeing.com/innovation
Posted in Broadband, Business, Communication industry, Economy, Media, Net, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology, Transportation
Tagged Boeing, Broadband, Business improvement, Electronics, Technology, United States, WGS
THE FIRST TWENTY YEARS – boeing.com/boeing100/
Boeing – It can be argued, of course, that the history of human flight stretches as far back as the myth of Daedalus and Icarus, or Leonardo da Vinci’s designs of the 15th century, or the 19th-century invention of Zeppelin dirigibles.
But flight as we know it today—in fixed-wing airplanes—began in the early 20th century, as entrepreneurs and engineers including William E. Boeing, Donald Douglas Sr., James H. “Dutch” Kindelberger, and James S. McDonnell began to build on what the Wright Brothers had started not so long before.
The Wright brothers helped popularize barnstorming, stunt flights that showcased both pilot skills and aircraft strength. In 1914, William Boeing took his first plane ride with a barnstormer. Later that year, he built a hangar next to Lake Union in Seattle.
In 1915, during World War I, that German lieutenant Kurt Wintgens scored the world’s first aerial victory. He did it in the first fighter plane that had a machine gun synchronized with the airplane’s propeller, which allowed it to shoot directly in the pilot’s line of sight.
The nine Apollo space expeditions to the moon were powered by the three-stage Saturn V rocket, for which Boeing designed and built the first stage.
The height of a 36-story building, the Saturn V was built for moon missions, and two years after its first liftoff in 1967, it lifted the Apollo 11 mission that allowed astronaut Neil Armstrong to become the first human to touch the moon. The last Saturn V launched the Skylab space station into Earth orbit in 1973. more> http://goo.gl/v4T7aW
Posted in Economic development, Economy, Education, History, Leadership, Nature, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology, Transportation
Tagged Boeing, Business improvement, Industrial economy, Leadership, Manufacturing, Super regions, Technology, United States
Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly False, Author: Thomas Nagel.
Origin of Species, Author: Charles Darwin.
Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, Author: Norbert Wiener.
After Virtue, Author: Alasdair MacIntyre.
The End of History and the Last Man, Author: Francis Fukuyama.
The Quantum Universe: Everything That Can Happen Does Happen, Authors: Brian Cox and Jeff Forshaw.
Darwin, Author: Tim Lewens.
The Goldilocks Enigma, Author: Paul Davies.
By Steven Poole – Nagel says that the appearance of conscious beings such as us can be described as the universe waking up. In Mind and Cosmos, Nagel’s suggested teleology does not involve a creator; it is merely a law-like tendency in the universe that somehow loads the dice in favor of the appearance of consciousness.
As Nagel puts it, it might be that the universe exhibits ‘a bias toward the marvelous’. If so, it would not be surprising that consciousness had appeared, because we live in a universe whose very purpose, aim, or telos, is the production of consciousness.
Nagel has a cosmic horror of the fluke, because it is so unconsoling.
But what if the appearance of life and consciousness just were sheer flukes?
What if they probably wouldn’t happen again if you ran the universe from the same initial conditions?
What if there are a great many different universes, and life just happened to arise in ours but not in most of the others? more> https://goo.gl/Dp6dAG
Posted in Book review, Education, History, Nature, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology
Tagged Organization, Philosophy, Physics, Purpose, Space, Teleology
Einstein Was Correct (Again): Gravitational Waves Observed
By Jason Maderer – For the first time ever, a gravitational wave has been observed. A team of global researchers announced the finding on Thursday, February 11. The discovery comes 100 years after Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in his theory of general relativity.
Gravitational waves are ripples in the very same fabric of the universe that bend and distort space-time. They are produced during violent cosmic disturbances.
In this case, the observed wave was created when two black holes collided approximately a billion and a half years ago, sending a ripple hurtling through space at the speed of light. It arrived on September 14, 2015, and was detected by LIGO – the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory — a National Science Foundation-funded physics experiment that has searched for waves for more than a decade.
The LIGO Scientific Collaboration includes two Georgia Tech College of Sciences faculty members, and their team of 10 postdoctoral fellows, graduate, and undergraduate students. more> http://goo.gl/nQhIfs
- Atmospheric Sulfate Particles Reduced, but as Acidic as Ever, John Toon
- An Animal That “Flies” through the Ocean, Jason Maderer
- Wearable Robot Transforms Musicians into Three-Armed Drummers, Jason Maderer
- Using Stories to Teach Human Values to Artificial Agents, Tara La Bouff
- Physics: It’s What’s Happening Inside Your Body Right Now, John Toon
- Aerospace Engineering Unveils a Piece of Aviation History, Kathleen Moore
- For this Nanocatalyst, One Atom Makes a Big Difference, John Toon
- Reconfigurable Origami Tubes Could Find Antenna, Microfluidic Uses, John Toon
- Study Shows Large Variability in Abundance of Viruses that Infect Ocean Microorganisms, John Toon
- Looking Beyond the Structure, Jerry Grillo
- Living Building Challenge: The Journey Begins, Rachael Pocklington
Posted in Economy, Education, Energy & emissions, History, Nature, Net, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology
Tagged Georgia Tech, Gravitational waves, Physics, Technology, Test & measurement, United States