Updates from Ciena

5G wireless needs fiber, and lots of it
When the topic of 5G wireless comes up, your first thought likely isn’t about fiber networks running under the ground. 5G mobile networks will significantly affect both the wireless side (obviously!) and the wireline side of the global network infrastructure. In fact, 5G’s formidable network performance goals are heavily predicated on the availability of fiber, and lots of it, to cell sites.
By Brian Lavallée – According to the International Telecommunications Union’s (ITU) latest “Trends in Telecommunication Reform” report, ongoing capital investments related to fiber infrastructure are expected to total a staggering $144.2B between 2014 and 2019. One of the primary drivers for this immense capital investment into fiber infrastructure deployments comes out of thin air, in the form of tomorrow’s 5G radios.

5G mobile networks will significantly affect both the wireless side (obviously!) and the wireline side of the global network infrastructure, as airborne bits jump to and from terrestrial wireline networks. In a previous post, I summarized the main aspirational performance goals of 5G, which are listed below. These formidable network performance goals are heavily predicated on the availability of fiber, and lots of it, to the cell sites.

  • Up to 1000 times increased in bandwidth, per unit area
  • Up to 100 times more connected devices
  • Up to 10Gbps connection rates to mobile devices in the field
  • A perceived network availability of 99.999%
  • A perceived 100% network coverage
  • Maximum of 1ms end-to-end round trip delay (latency)
  • Up to 90% reduction in network energy utilization

Traditionally, 2G and 3G mobile networks often used copper-based Time Division multiplexing (TDM) circuits, such as multiple bonded T1s or E1s, to connect cell sites to a nearby Mobile Switching Center over the Mobile Backhaul (MBH) network. Although this now legacy MBH architecture has indeed served the industry well for decades, it’s quickly showing its age with advent of 4G. MBH upgrades are taking place all over the world converting legacy copper-based MBH serving cell sites to packet-based transport over fiber, which enables far higher capacities to best future-proof MBH networks.

The increased adoption of 4G LTE and LTE-Advanced mobile network technology is accelerating these MBH fiber upgrades, which can and will be leveraged by future 5G networks, given the almost unlimited bandwidth that fiber-based networks offer.You can examine viable options for the road ahead with our Essentials Series guide: Mobile Backhaul. more>

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Updates from Chicago Booth

Whistle-blowers act out of a sense of morality
By Alice G. Walton – Say you witness a coworker subtly misleading a client, or rounding off sales numbers in her favor. Do you report it, or not?

Chicago Booth postdoctoral scholar James A. Dungan, Boston College’s Liane Young, and Northwestern’s Adam Waytz looked at what goes into the calculation people make when considering whether to report bad behavior. Moral concerns figure highly, they find, above employees’ feelings about their employers, fear of reprisal, and satisfaction with the recognition and rewards they receive at their job.

To understand the factors that predict the likelihood of whistle-blowing, the researchers analyzed data from more than 42,000 participants in the ongoing Merit Principles Survey, which has polled US government employees since 1979, and which covers whistle-blowing. Respondents answer questions about their past experiences with unethical behavior, the approaches they’d take in dealing with future unethical behavior, and their personal characteristics, including their concern for others and their feelings about their organizations.

Concern for others was the strongest predictor of whistle-blowing, the researchers find. This was true both of people who had already blown the whistle on bad behavior and of people who expected they might in the future.

Loyalty to an immediate community—or ingroup, in psychological terms—was also linked to whistle-blowing, but in an inverse way. “The greater people’s concern for loyalty, the less likely they were to blow the whistle,” write the researchers.

Organizational factors—such as people’s perceptions about their employer, their concern for their job, and their level of motivation or engagement—were largely unconnected to whether people spoke up. more>

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The Unwanted Wars

Why the Middle East Is More Combustible Than Ever
By Robert Malley – The war that now looms largest is a war nobody apparently wants.

A conflict could break out in any one of a number of places for any one of a number of reasons. Consider the September 14 attack on Saudi oil facilities: it could theoretically have been perpetrated by the Houthis, a Yemeni rebel group, as part of their war with the kingdom; by Iran, as a response to debilitating U.S. sanctions; or by an Iranian-backed Shiite militia in Iraq.

If Washington decided to take military action against Tehran, this could in turn prompt Iranian retaliation against the United States’ Gulf allies, an attack by Hezbollah on Israel, or a Shiite militia operation against U.S. personnel in Iraq. Likewise, Israeli operations against Iranian allies anywhere in the Middle East could trigger a regionwide chain reaction. Because any development anywhere in the region can have ripple effects everywhere, narrowly containing a crisis is fast becoming an exercise in futility.

The Middle East has become the world’s most polarized region and, paradoxically, its most integrated. That combination—along with weak state structures, powerful nonstate actors, and multiple transitions occurring almost simultaneously—also makes the Middle East the world’s most volatile region. It further means that as long as its regional posture remains as it is, the United States will be just one poorly timed or dangerously aimed Houthi drone strike, or one particularly effective Israeli operation against a Shiite militia, away from its next costly regional entanglement.

Ultimately, the question is not chiefly whether the United States should disengage from the region. It is how it should choose to engage: diplomatically or militarily, by exacerbating divides or mitigating them, and by aligning itself fully with one side or seeking to achieve a sort of balance.

Economically, it ranks among the least integrated areas of the world; institutionally, the Arab League is less coherent than the European Union, less effective than the African Union, and more dysfunctional than the Organization of American States. Nor is there any regional entity to which Arab countries and the three most active non-Arab players (Iran, Israel, and Turkey) belong.

Yet in so many other ways, the Middle East functions as a unified space. Ideologies and movements spread across borders: in times past, Arabism and Nasserism; today, political Islam and jihadism. more>

Updates from Datacenter.com

If you don’t test your back-up power, don’t expect it to work!
Datacenter.com – Last week we again conducted a black building test. This time including the power expansion which will be active soon. We always have full confidence in our black building test, but it’s good to test this regularly. After a series of power outages at various data centers, we ensure there is a power supply when you really need it.

If the power goes out for a short or long time, that is of course annoying if your favorite TV show was just on TV. But if a power outage means that your critical IT infrastructure no longer works, there are far-reaching consequences for your company. How is a power outage picked up by Datacenter.com.

For companies, organizations and governments, reliable power supply is one of the most important reasons for placing their IT equipment in a data center. Recent high-profile data center failures brought the issue of reliability to the fore. Historically, data center power cuts have been experienced by many blue-chip banks and telecoms providers, so no-one can claim immunity from such problems.

To guarantee the reliability of that power supply, we test our emergency power supply on a monthly basis. During such a test, we activate the generators to ensure the redundant power supply path works appropriately. By setting up a switch that starts our redundant set of emergency power supply, synchronizes with the mains, and delivering power to the IT equipment. During regular generator tests, the generator is putted next to the grid so the equipment that is not behind UPS remains switched on. This means that the cooling system and the lighting will continue to work during such a test. more>

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Updates from Siemens

Electrolux implements worldwide 3D factory and material flow planning
Siemens – Based in Stockholm, Sweden, Electrolux AB sells appliances for household and commer­cial use in 150 countries around the world. With around 58,000 employees and 46 pro­duction sites, the company develops and manufactures products of numerous brands: in addition to Electrolux, the top brands Grand Cuisine, AEG, Zanussi, Frigidaire and Westinghouse enjoy a particularly high reputation.

In 1996, the German AEG brand was acquired from Daimler Benz, together with several divi­sions and locations of the group. This is how the factory in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, founded in 1964, came to Electrolux, which today produces 600,000 stoves and 1,400,000 cooking ranges per year for the European market.

We attach great impor­tance to implementing in detail the essential product characteristics of each brand in development and production,” reports Bernd Ebert, director of Global Manufacturing Engineering − Food Preparation at Electrolux. Based in Rothenburg, Ebert ensures that all Electrolux cooking appliance factories imple­ment uniform processes and systems.

As part of a comprehensive digitalization strategy covering all areas, 11 digital manu­facturing projects are on the agenda of the Swedish global corporation. Ebert has assumed responsibility for two global proj­ects with the highest priority. They aim to create “digital twins” of all manufacturing sites: In the virtual manufacturing project, an advanced planning tool was selected and introduced for early design verification to develop products that are production- and assembly-friendly. For example, assembly sequences and movements will be planned and optimized three-dimensionally to pre­vent collisions. The prerequisite for this is the development of three-dimensional fac­tory layouts, which is the focus of the sec­ond project, 3D factory layout. The layouts will be created using a standard factory planning tool that can simulate both the plant and the material flow on the basis of 2D data in order to optimize capacity and efficiency.

Software selection began in 2014, when only a few had powerful software for 3D factory planning. A small, specialist team led by Ebert worked closely with the company’s IT department in Stockholm. Starting in 2015, Teamcenter from Siemens PLM Software was deployed there as a strategi­cally important product development plat­form for product lifecycle management (PLM) at Electrolux.

Discussions about Siemens’ future strategy led to an offer to test a pre-release version of the 3D layout software Line Designer in an early adopter program. more>

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Updates from ITU

The network operator of 2025: can telcos retain a leading role in the digital era?
ITU News – After building much of the infrastructure for the digital transformation we see across industries and society, traditional telecommunications network operators continue to be confronted by extensive changes in markets, technologies, consumer demands and value chains.

“We’re talking about the industry that 20 years ago was the sexiest industry in the world,” said Tomas Lamanauskas, founder and Managing Partner at Envision Associates, Ltd. “We’re at a little bit of a different stage now.”

That could be the understatement of the decade.

With new market players, multi-billion dollar mergers, massive infrastructure investment requirements and shrinking traditional revenue bases, the question arises: Can telecommunications companies (telcos) retain a leading role in the digital era? And what role will regulators have in this increasingly dynamic space?

The answers to these questions have great implications for people worldwide whose lives could be greatly benefited by a range of services from mobile banking and smart farming to intelligent transport systems and customized, precision healthcare solutions. And they have great implications for ITU, which counts telcos as some of its most active, most influential traditional private-sector members. more>

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The dirty secret of capitalism

By Nick Hanauer – I am a capitalist, and after a 30-year career in capitalism spanning three dozen companies, generating tens of billions of dollars in market value, I’m not just in the top one percent, I’m in the top .01 percent of all earners. Today, I have come to share the secrets of our success, because rich capitalists like me have never been richer. So the question is, how do we do it? How do we manage to grab an ever-increasing share of the economic pie every year? Is it that rich people are smarter than we were 30 years ago? Is it that we’re working harder than we once did? Are we taller, better looking?

Sadly, no. It all comes down to just one thing: economics. Because, here’s the dirty secret. There was a time in which the economics profession worked in the public interest, but in the neoliberal era, today, they work only for big corporations and billionaires, and that is creating a little bit of a problem.

So, what is a society to do? Well, it’s super clear to me what we need to do. We need a new economics. So, economics has been described as the dismal science, and for good reason, because as much as it is taught today, it isn’t a science at all, in spite of all of the dazzling mathematics. In fact, a growing number of academics and practitioners have concluded that neoliberal economic theory is dangerously wrong and that today’s growing crises of rising inequality and growing political instability are the direct result of decades of bad economic theory. What we now know is that the economics that made me so rich isn’t just wrong, it’s backwards, because it turns out it isn’t capital that creates economic growth, it’s people; and it isn’t self-interest that promotes the public good, it’s reciprocity; and it isn’t competition that produces our prosperity, it’s cooperation. What we can now see is that an economics that is neither just nor inclusive can never sustain the high levels of social cooperation necessary to enable a modern society to thrive.

So where did we go wrong? Well, it turns out that it’s become painfully obvious that the fundamental assumptions that undergird neoliberal economic theory are just objectively false, and so today first I want to take you through some of those mistaken assumptions and then after describe where the science suggests prosperity actually comes from. more>

Updates from Chicago Booth

The real cost of discrimination: A case study from Nazi Germany
By Robin I. Mordfin -Policies such as the Trump administration’s ban on visitors from a string of majority-Muslim countries are likely to harm American companies, research suggests.

Chicago Booth’s Kilian Huber and University of Munich’s Volker Lindenthal and Fabian Waldinger draw their conclusion from a study of companies in Nazi Germany. Purging Jewish managers from German companies reduced the aggregate market valuation of all companies listed on the Berlin Stock Exchange by approximately 5 percent between 1933 and 1943, or nearly 2 percent of the German gross national product, they find.

The researchers collected data on 30,000 managerial positions at German companies that had been listed on the Berlin Stock Exchange in 1932, when Hitler was on the path to becoming the leader of the country. At the time, Jews held about 15 percent of senior management positions in these companies.

After the Nazis took power in 1933, those managers either left or were forced out of their positions. The share prices of these companies then declined relative to companies that had never employed Jewish executives. The share prices of companies that lost Jewish managers started falling in 1933 and remained persistently 10 percent lower than the share prices of peer companies that had never had Jews in senior positions. more>

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Updates from Ciena

Dissecting a submarine network trial announcement
With network infrastructure as critical as submarine cables, we’re constantly seeing new cables being announced and new technological milestones being achieved – but what’s real? Learn the difference between a hero trial, real-world trial, and how you can read between the lines to help separate hype from reality.
By Brian Lavallée – 2019 has and will continue to be a very busy year in the submarine network industry, with several new cables announced, deployed, and already put into the Ready for Service (RFS) state. Why does the industry need so many new submarine cables? To maintain pace with our ever-growing affinity and utter addiction to Internet-based content, which continues to drive the 40% CAGR in intercontinental bandwidth demand, according to industry analysts at TeleGeography, along the submerged information superhighways that interconnect continental landmasses.

As submarine networks are rightfully considered critical infrastructure, deploying new and modern cables will improve the overall reliability of the global network that erases distance and borders to close the digital divide.

When new submarine cable performance milestones are achieved in trials, they’re actively promoted through blogs, press releases, tweets, and webinars to celebrate, and why not? These new submerged wet plant and modem technology advancements are truly astonishing and deserve this fanfare – but the context of these achievements must be fully understood to determine what’s actually deployable for live customer traffic in the real-world.

A “hero field trial” typically uses best-case conditions that are not applicable in the real-world for production traffic, such as using Start-of-Life (SOL) performance margins and not End-of-Life (EOL) performance margins. A “hero trial announcement” can be identified by terms like “evaluation board”, “experimental”, “forward-looking”, “proof of concept”, “demonstration”, “industry first”, and other similar rather vague terms.

A hero trial focuses on demonstrating new capabilities of a technology and/or product albeit without consideration of commercial requirements or conditions. That said, it’s a critical step in the evolution of any new technology.

In contrast to a hero field trial, a “real-world field trial” focuses on demonstrating new capabilities of a technology and/or product albeit with consideration of commercial requirements and conditions. This means that the offering can reliably carry customer traffic and maintain the agreed to Service Level Agreements (SLA) in the long-term. more>

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Updates from Adobe

Bailey Sullivan Is Busy
By Terri Stone – Bailey Sullivan is a graphic designer for WeWork, a company that rents shared workspaces. Part of her job involves traveling to WeWork offices around the world and embellishing them with her art on walls, rugs, signs, sculptures, benches, and more. On top of globe-hopping for work, she also juggles freelance clients and personal projects.

“It’s a hard balance of wanting to be creating all of the time while not neglecting your relationships and personal health,” Sullivan says. She’s learned that adding a “buffer day”—or two—into timelines for freelance projects helps maintain her sanity.

Sullivan’s pieces sometimes read as folk art for the modern age. “I’m obsessed with old European floral illustrations,” she says. “My husband spent a few years living in Budapest as a child; awhile back I was searching online for something special from that area for him and I came across all of these amazing vintage Hungarian floral stamps and embroideries. I instantly connected with that imagery and how graphic and bright the flowers were and how they were stylized in a way that feels more decorative than a realistic still life.” more>

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