Since glottalization began in the middle of the 1800s, it has been through several different cycles. Now it appears to have reached yet another turning point.
Only recently has globalization matched the heights it reached before World War I.
- First wave of globalization (1850s to 1914)
- Protectionism (1914 to 1945)
- Second wave of glottalization (1945 to 1990)
- Hyperglobalization (1990 to present)
Among the clear beneficiaries of hyperglobalization are the emerging economies, which have become increasingly integrated into more and more complex global value chains. Their role in processing raw materials, and in value-added manufacturing and services has grown rapidly.
The first signs of opposition to hyperglobalisation emerged amid major demonstrations at the 1999 meeting of the World Trade Organization in Seattle. Concerns mounted in the wake of the 2008-09 financial crisis and subsequent global recession, reflected more recently in public resistance to trade and investment agreements such as the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership.
Discriminatory protectionist tariffs and trade measures are on the rise. more> https://goo.gl/K54eeK