By Elizabeth Montalbano – Deriving energy from the heat electronic devices emit so they can provide their own sustainable sources of power is a Holy Grail for scientists developing power sources for sensors that will drive the future of healthcare devices as well as the Internet of Things.
Researchers in Japan now have come up with a new thermoelectric generator that can convert temperature differences to electricity can be used to power small, flexible devices.
Scientists at Osaka University developed the device in the form of a bismuth telluride semiconductor on a thin, polymer film that weighs less than a paperclip and smaller than the size of an adult fingernail.
However, packed in the tiny device is a maximum output power density of 185 milliwatts per square centimeter, which “meets standard specifications for portable and wearable sensors,” Tohru Sugahara, an associate professor at the university’s Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, in a press statement. more>
Posted in Business, Economic development, Energy, How to, Nature, Net, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Electrical generator, Electronics, Health, Internet of Things, Technology
Revolutionizing Plant Performance with the Digital Twin and IIoT eBook
By Jim Brown – How can manufacturers use the digital twin and industrial IoT to dramatically improve manufacturing and product performance?
The manufacturing industries are getting more challenging. Manufacturers must evolve as new technologies remove barriers to entry and enable new, digital players to challenge market share. Operational efficiency is no longer enough to compete in today’s era of digitalization and Industry 4.0.
To remain competitive, companies have to maintain high productivity while offering unprecedented levels of flexibility and responsiveness. We believe this is a fundamental disruption that will change the status quo. To survive, manufacturers need to digitalize operations in order to improve speed, agility, quality, costs, customer satisfaction, and the ability to tailor to customer and market needs.
One of the most compelling digitalization opportunities is adopting the digital twin. This approach combines a number of digital technologies to significantly improve quality and productivity. It starts with comprehensive, virtual models of physical assets – products and production lines – to help optimize designs. But the value is much greater because the physical and virtual twins are connected and kept in sync with real data from the Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrial IoT (IIoT).
Further, companies can use analytics to analyze digital twin data to develop deep insights and intelligence that allow for real-time intervention and long-term, continuous improvement.
The digital twin holds significant productivity and quality opportunities for the plant. It can be used to understand when the plant isn’t operating as intended. It can identify or predict equipment issues that can result in unplanned downtime or correct process deviations before they result in quality slippage, scrap, and rework. more>
Posted in Broadband, Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, How to, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Capital, Electronics, PLM, Product lifecycle management, Productivity, Siemens, Skills
By Arthur Pini – The eye diagram is a general-purpose tool for analyzing serial digital signals. It shows the effects of vertical noise, horizontal jitter, duty cycle distortion, inter-symbol interference, and crosstalk, all of which can close the “eye.” While engineers have used eye diagrams for decades, oscilloscopes continually get new features that increase its value.
Oscilloscopes form eye diagrams—the separation between the two binary data states “1” and “0”—by overlaying multiple single clock periods on a persistence display. The accumulation shows the history of multiple acquisitions.
Additive noise tends to close the eye vertically while timing jitter and uncertainty closes the eye horizontally. Duty cycle distortion (DCD) and inter-symbol interference (ISI) change the shape of the eye. The channel will fail if the eye closes to the point where the receiver can no longer recognize “0” and “1” states.
In the days of analog oscilloscopes, the eye diagram was formed by triggering the oscilloscope with the serial data clock and acquiring multiple bits over time using a persistence or storage display. This technique adds the trigger uncertainty or trigger jitter to the eye diagram for each acquisition. Digital oscilloscopes form the eye by acquiring very long record with many serial bits.
The clock period is determined, and the waveform is broken up or “sliced” into multiple single-bit acquisitions overlaid in the persistence display. In this way, all the data is acquired with a single value of trigger jitter that’s eliminated by using differential time measurements within the eye. more>
By Maria M – The foundation of smart manufacturing is an integrated platform that unites the domains required to engineer, manufacture and deliver today’s smart products. Smart manufacturing is a digitalized development strategy that is particularly critical for the electronics industry. Today it’s considered a must have and no longer touted as state of the art or nice to have, cost prohibitive, functionality.
Smart manufacturing is for every company, any size large and small and no longer thought to apply only to high volume production. It is in fact the perfect solution for high mix, low volume manufacturers. Providing them with the agility and flexibility they need to be most efficient and adaptable to change.
To take full advantage of smart manufacturing all processes from printed circuit board (PCB) design and factory floor optimization to incorporating customer feedback in new designs must be included. This approach has been shown to reduce time-to-market by up to 50 percent, shrink development costs by as much as 25 percent and enable electronics companies manufacturing processes to yield near-perfect results.
Most electronics manufacturers have digitalized their operations in a piecemeal fashion over time. Their digital landscapes have expanded as the technologies and their business cases have evolved, and manufacturers have applied solutions for a range of individual functions.
To truly reap digitalization’s potential benefits, electronics manufacturers need integrated smart manufacturing solutions that break down the silos. Such solutions use product lifecycle management (PLM) technologies to link design verification, manufacturing planning and process engineering, allied with electronics-specific manufacturing execution systems (MES) that unite production scheduling, production execution, and manufacturing analytics. more>
Posted in Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, How to, Product, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Electronics, Internet, Manufacturing, Siemens, Skills
Requires the optimal combination of primary and secondary sources
By Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio – A satellite needs an energy source to provide perfect performance, with the battery inside it working continuously for many years. The electrical power system is, perhaps, the most fundamental requirement for the satellite payload, as power system failure results in the loss of the space mission. It’s interesting to note that many of the early satellite systems failed due to these power system failures.
Power systems cover all aspects of energy production, storage, conditioning, distribution, and conversion for all types of space applications. Missions can last from a few minutes (launchers) to decades, such as interplanetary probes or the International Space Station (ISS), and can require from a minimum of a few watts (cubes) to tens of kilowatts (large space vehicles for telecommunications such as for the ISS). The electrical loads of a satellite often vary depending on which instruments or subsystems are running at a given time.
Therefore, power systems engineering (also called the electrical power system, or EPS) for satellites requires the selection of the optimal combination of primary and secondary sources for the architecture. more>
Posted in Broadband, Business, Communication industry, Economic development, Economy, Education, How to, Net, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Design, Electronics, Power Supplies, Satellite, Technology
New technology in industry is creating a platform economy
By Frank_Fang – Twenty years ago, product-centric companies dominated a list of the most valuable companies in the world. The list was a Who’s Who of automotive, manufacturing, oil and gas, and brick-and-mortar retailers.
Today, platform-based businesses rule.
This new economy forces product-centric manufacturing companies to rethink how they transform digitally to survive and thrive in a data-rich market. It’s no secret that new technology and new approaches eventually supersede the old.
We’re witnessing one of these periods now. As manufacturers look for ways to radically redefine processes through the hype of the sharing economy, online platforms, the end of money and all the other buzzwords people use today, digital twin evolution will lead to platform economy, a state Viktor Mayer-Schönberger foresees in his book Reinventing Capitalism in the Age of Big Data.
Digital twins, which evolve from decades of simulation and analysis in engineering, are high fidelity models for actual physical objects such as a product or production process. Using computer aided-design, model-based system engineering and multiphysics simulation tools, a designer or engineer creates a digital representation for a physical object or process.
The digital twin is no longer science fiction. For example, NASA used this approach to design, engineer and produce two Mars rovers: Curiosity and InSight.
Since you can’t build a Mars environment on earth, you simply bring Mars to the computer and digitally test your Mars rover. more>
Posted in Book review, Broadband, Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, Energy & emissions, How to, Net, Product, Science, Technology, Transportation
Tagged Business improvement, Electronics, Manufacturing, PLM, Product lifecycle management, Productivity, Siemens, Technology
Signals from Distant Lightning Could Help Secure Electric Substations
By John Toon – Side channel signals and bolts of lightning from distant storms could one day help prevent hackers from sabotaging electric power substations and other critical infrastructure, a new study suggests.
By analyzing electromagnetic signals emitted by substation components using an independent monitoring system, security personnel could tell if switches and transformers were being tampered with in remote equipment. Background lightning signals from thousands of miles away would authenticate those signals, preventing malicious actors from injecting fake monitoring information into the system.
The research, done by engineers at the Georgia Institute of Technology, has been tested at substations with two different electric utilities, and by extensive modeling and simulation. Known as radio frequency-based distributed intrusion detection system (RFDIDS), the technique was described February 26 at the 2019 Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS) in San Diego.
“We should be able to remotely detect any attack that is modifying the magnetic field around substation components,” said Raheem Beyah, Motorola Foundation Professor in Georgia Tech’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and co-founder of Fortiphyd Logic, Inc. “We are using a physical phenomenon to determine whether a certain action at a substation has occurred or not.”
Opening substation breakers to cause a blackout is one potential power grid attack, and in December 2015, that technique was used to shut off power to 230,000 persons in the Ukraine. Attackers opened breakers in 30 substations and hacked into monitoring systems to convince power grid operators that the grid was operating normally. Topping that off, they also attacked call centers to prevent customers from telling operators what was happening. more>
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Posted in Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, Healthcare, How to, Nature, Net, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Earth, Electronics, Georgia Tech, Health, Skills, Technology