Tag Archives: Ethernet

Updates from Ciena

Standards Update: 200GbE, 400GbE and Beyond with Pete Anslow – “Live” from Geneva
By Helen Xenos, Pete Anslow – IEEE 802.3bs defines the technical specifications to support MAC or Ethernet data rates of 200Gb/s and 400Gb/s – double and four times the capacity of Ethernet rates today – that can operate at distances to meet the requirements for most applications. The objective of the project is to define specifications that will enable multi-vendor interop, using appropriate technologies that will meet the performance and cost points required by the industry. Cost will be a function of volume and yield of components, so we aim to use existing components and technologies that can be supplied by multiple vendors.

The IEEE 802.3bs project defines physical layer specifications for operation over 100m (400GBASE-SR16), 500m (200GBASE-DR4 and 400GBASE-DR4), 2km (200GBASE-FR4 and 400GBASE-FR8), and 10km (200GBASE-LR4 and 400GBASE-LR8) distances.

The most popular formats to meet the majority of core router to transport distance requirements are the 2km and 10km devices.

While the per lane technology for 100GbE used 25Gbps NRZ signaling, we are now using PAM4 signaling for most of the new electrical and optical interface specifications. PAM4 stands for Pulse Amplitude Modulation with the “4” indicating 4 levels of modulation. 50G PAM4 requires a more sophisticated receiver design but allows for the doubling of capacity per lane while reusing existing high volume, reliable electro-optics. The signal operates at a symbol rate of 25GBaud (speed of the electro-optics), but carries 2 bits per symbol, thus doubling the capacity (50G per lane). more>

Updates from Ciena

Ethernet Adventures: Making Progress with an Old Friend – Good ol’ Ethernet
By Chris Sweetapple – This was not his only network problem. The traditional Local Area Network (LAN) connections were plagued by latency and jitter. Users simply would NOT use underperforming applications or services.

To our hero, this is not good enough. His business’ users have high expectations. They want connectivity options and performance that are reliable, secure, on-demand and cost-effective. Our hero knows that the network can play a very valuable role. Only the network can manage the quality of the connection and ensure optimal end-user experience for everything else. This makes the network more important than ever – and a differentiator for the business; but only if it can provide the best possible assurance for each service by ensuring latency, security and speed.

With his friend, advanced business Ethernet, our hero can mitigate legacy network complexities, sidestep the public internet and increase network performance. He can also maintain links to traditional networks and applications while keeping pace with fluctuating usage demands. Our hero can now modernize his network. He can move toward next-generation operations and embrace hybrid capabilities for a variety of uses. Connections can be increased from 1G to 10G and higher – up to 100G to connect to data centers or transfer massive files like MRI scans, uncompressed video, design prototypes, and so on. more>

Updates from Ciena

By John Hawkins – 100G. One hundred billion bits per second. Let that sink in for a minute.

You may have seen broadband offers from your local phone, cable, or wireless operator for 1 Gb/s services. But 100 Gb/s? Nice as it sounds, who needs it? Well, you’d be surprised.

As it turns out, 100GbE service is in demand for several reasons. Not in your residential context, mind you, but in a growing number of enterprise and operator scenarios – and it’s starting to get noticed. Current industry projections estimate that almost $7B (US) worth of 100G Ethernet services will sell this year, and will approach $20B by 2020.

We have been experiencing continued growth in bandwidth consumption for years. No surprise there. Shipments for 1GbE ports are still the sweet spot and the volume leader, while 10GbE ports are gaining ground according to Ovum. The trend is driven primarily by the growth in enterprise/residential service aggregation, mobile network buildouts, and data center interconnect. more>

How Ethernet Will Get to 400Gbps

By Lynnette Reese – The IEEE 802.3bs standard for 400Gbps is on track to be ratified and released late this year. Higher speed technologies tend to get driven to adoption as soon as they are available.

In 2004, 10Gbps was the leading edge. In 2010 40Gbps Ethernet and 100Gbps were introduced. How did we get this far, so fast?

The present group is leveraging a parallel lane structure to get to 400Gbps. For electrical interfaces the fastest speeds in the spec will be 50Gbps. When discussing optical fiber transmission, then the variation depends on the distance that one requires.

Technically, 400Gbps is not possible without switching away from non-return-to-zero modulation (also known as NRZ-type) encoding, the encoding scheme that everyone thinks of when they visualize Ethernet communication and other serial data transmission schemes.

NRZ data is encoded into a binary pattern with fixed voltage levels. A binary 0 is represented by the lower voltage level; the higher voltage level indicates binary 1. In 1000base-T Ethernet, the stream of 0s and 1s is driven at a 1000 bits per second (1Gbps) transmission rate.

At present, the physical “wall” of streaming 0s and 1s for single lane electrical interfaces is 25 Gbps, found in the standards as 802.3bj across backplanes and cables, and 802.3bm across chip-to-chip and chip-to-module interfaces.

In May 2016, an IEEE 802.3 task force formed to develop a single-lane 50 Gbps Ethernet standard. The 802.3bs standard, which defines 400Gbps in aggregate, will use an encoding scheme called PAM4 (4-Level Pulse Amplitude Modulation) to reach 50Gbps per channel. PAM4 is an encoding scheme that doubles the bit rate by providing four signal levels in the space of the two that NRZ presently provides. PAM4 cleverly divides the least significant bit (LSB) signal level in half and adds it to the signal of the most significant bit (MSB). more> https://goo.gl/fcDF8f

The real reason for the IP-propaganda

English: Connections on an Ethernet switch. Es...

English: Connections on an Ethernet switch. Español: Conexión en un Ethernet switch.
(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

By Robert Morlan – There has been a long standing effort to bring about an all-IP (Internet Protocol) network. The real reason behind this effort is to make it easier for spying.

POTS, TDM & ATM is a nuisance to those that want to be able to spy on data networks. There is no industry led agenda to make these systems and technologies obsolete. The source of this agenda is coming from government and political forces to expand, converge, and exclusively operate Ethernet to make spying easier.

Common Sense tells us that when we start replacing TDM/ATM, SDH/SONET WAN with Ethernet, security is not our concern. The problem is that the old technologies make it almost impossible to hack into service provider networks. Ethernet makes it so much easier to collect data from the Internet and it’s users.

So we have all these political and corporate puppets promoting convergence.™¦


Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE)

By Brian Jaroszewski and Javad LavasaniEthernet is the most widely used networking interface in the world; with virtually all network traffic passing over multiple Ethernet links. However, the majority of Ethernet links spend significant time waiting for data packets. Worse, some links, like traditional 1000BASE-T Ethernet links, consume power at near full active levels because of clock synchronization requirements during those idle periods.

The standard for EEE defines the signaling necessary for energy savings during periods where no data is sent on the interface, but does not define how the energy is saved, nor mandate a level of savings. This approach allows for a staged rollout of systems with minimal changes and which are compatible with future developments that extend the energy savings. more> http://tinyurl.com/njsbhlp


10 things you may not know about Ethernet

A diagram from Bob Metcalfe's original memo explaining how Ethernet works. (Credit: Palo Alto Research Center)By Jim Duffy – Ethernet‘s value to networking and IT is well established over the past 40 years. But did you know that “Ethernet” refers to two slightly different ways of sending information between endpoints on a LAN?

  • Ethernet was inspired by ALOHAnet, which was developed at the University of Hawaii
  • Ethernet was named after luminiferous ether, a 19th century theory on a substance believed to act as the medium for transmission of electromagnetic waves
  • Early in its development, Ethernet was referred to as the “DIX” standard, for “Digital/Intel/Xerox
  • Ethernet, Token Ring and Token Bus were vying to become a single IEEE LAN standard in 1980

more> http://tinyurl.com/pz632y9


Alcatel-Lucent brings 40G to the core

Aerial view of Bell Labs Holmdel Complex. The ...

Aerial view of Bell Labs Holmdel Complex. The Bell Labs building in Holmdel is an architectural heirloom, designed by renowned architect Eero Saarinen, with a proud and distinguished history. For 44 years it was the home of an advanced research lab owned successively by Bell Telephone, AT&T, Lucent, and Alcatel.
(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

By Jim Duffy – Alcatel-Lucent this week at Interop will flesh out its data center fabric vision with 40G Ethernetand higher-density 10G Ethernet capabilities on its core switches, as well as enhanced software for its top-of-rack and core switches.

The extensions to Alcatel-Lucent‘s Application Fluent Networking (AFN) strategy are intended to offer users a low latency, multipath network with which to establish multi-site private clouds and connect to public clouds offered by service providers. In this endeavor, Alcatel-Lucent’s AFN will go up against fabrics like Cisco‘s FabricPath and CloudVerse, Juniper’s QFabric, Brocade’s Brocade One and Cloudplex, and HP’s FlexNetwork. more> http://tinyurl.com/ch7md5q

Alcatel-Lucent switch pushes Cisco, HP at the edge

By Jim Duffy – Alcatel-Lucent this week will unveil a new Ethernet switch for enterprise campus networks that is designed to extend voice, data and video convergence to the wiring closet and access tier.

The company’s OmniSwitch 6450 comes in 10-, 24-, and 48-port Fast and Gigabit Ethernet configurations. The 24- and 48-port versions are targeted at the network edge and wiring closet access environments, while the 10-port version is for branch office, SMB  and managed access applications. more> http://is.gd/an1nHE

Ethernet for Vehicles Advances

By Charles Murray – A coalition of automakers and automotive suppliers said recently that they are forming a special interest group (SIG) aimed at driving broad-scale adoption of Ethernet in vehicles, largely to serve the expected boom of camera-based applications in cars. At the same time, NXP Semiconductors announced that it is licensing Broadcom Corp.’s BroadR-Reach Ethernet technology, which would enable automakers to run a two-wire, twisted-pair type of Ethernet, instead of the four-wire type we’ve come to know in laptops. more> http://twurl.nl/vbawo2