How local productivity growth affects workers near and far
One city’s boom can be felt across a nation
Chicago Booth – When big cities experience an economic boom, you expect an upsurge in wages and growth in those areas. But there’s some nuance: according to Chicago Booth’s Richard Hornbeck and University of California at Berkeley’s Enrico Moretti, one area’s surge particularly benefits low-skilled workers locally—and high-skilled workers elsewhere.
Using total factor productivity (TFP) as a measure of local productivity growth, Hornbeck Amount and Moretti analyzed two decades of data from major US cities to quantify the direct effects on people living in booming cities and the indirect effects on people elsewhere. Allowing for trade-offs between salary and cost-of-living increases, as well as unequal distribution of benefits across different groups, the researchers find that low-skilled workers gained the most from local productivity growth.
But gains extended further afield: a boom in San Diego or Los Angeles, say, was also felt in other cities. And high-skilled workers gained more from productivity growth in other cities. more>
Posted in Business, Economy, Education, Healthcare, How to, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Chicago Booth, Economic development, Finance, Health, Insurance
Perceptible differences that drive top-line growth
Siemens – 150 million times a day…
…someone, somewhere in the world, chooses a Unilever product.
Unilever’s brand portfolio spans 14 categories of home, personal care and food products and includes world favorites such as Lipton, Knorr, Dove and Omo. The company employs 179,000 people in 100 countries worldwide. Its products are sold in the Americas, Europe and Asia/Africa in roughly equal distribution.
Innovation is critical to sustaining Unilever’s growth. “We see product innovation as one of the key drivers of top-line growth,” says Huw Evans, R&D director of information in Unilever’s Home and Personal Care Division. Unilever defines product innovation this way:
“Product innovation means providing the consumer with a product that delivers a perceivable benefit that is differentiated from those of our competitors and that differentiation drives the choice to purchase and use that product,” explains Evans.
“You can change products to improve their price differentials, for example, but if the consumer is not really experiencing a difference, then we wouldn’t classify that as innovation. Innovation is about consumer-perceptible benefits that drive choice. To help achieve this Unilever invests €1 billion every year in research and development, which includes support for five major laboratories around the world that explore new thinking and techniques to help develop our products.” more>
Posted in Broadband, Business, Economy, Education, How to, Net, Product, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Consumer goods, Health, Internet, PLM, Product lifecycle management, Siemens
Signals from Distant Lightning Could Help Secure Electric Substations
By John Toon – Side channel signals and bolts of lightning from distant storms could one day help prevent hackers from sabotaging electric power substations and other critical infrastructure, a new study suggests.
By analyzing electromagnetic signals emitted by substation components using an independent monitoring system, security personnel could tell if switches and transformers were being tampered with in remote equipment. Background lightning signals from thousands of miles away would authenticate those signals, preventing malicious actors from injecting fake monitoring information into the system.
The research, done by engineers at the Georgia Institute of Technology, has been tested at substations with two different electric utilities, and by extensive modeling and simulation. Known as radio frequency-based distributed intrusion detection system (RFDIDS), the technique was described February 26 at the 2019 Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS) in San Diego.
“We should be able to remotely detect any attack that is modifying the magnetic field around substation components,” said Raheem Beyah, Motorola Foundation Professor in Georgia Tech’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and co-founder of Fortiphyd Logic, Inc. “We are using a physical phenomenon to determine whether a certain action at a substation has occurred or not.”
Opening substation breakers to cause a blackout is one potential power grid attack, and in December 2015, that technique was used to shut off power to 230,000 persons in the Ukraine. Attackers opened breakers in 30 substations and hacked into monitoring systems to convince power grid operators that the grid was operating normally. Topping that off, they also attacked call centers to prevent customers from telling operators what was happening. more>
- Ultra-Low Power Chips Help Make Small Robots More Capable, John Toon
- Researchers Use Machine Learning To More Quickly Analyze Key Capacitor Materials, Josh Brown
- New Grant Award Supports Research on Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer, Elizabeth Thomson
- When Sand-Slithering Snakes Behave Like Light Waves, John Toon
- Urine Test Detects Organ Transplant Rejection, Could Replace Needle Biopsies, Ben Brumfield
- New Grant Award Supports Research on Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer, Elizabeth Thomson
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- Researchers Chart Path to Cheaper Flexible Solar Cells, Josh Brown
- Will Moving to the Commercial Cloud Leave Some Data Users Behind? John Toon
- $25 Million Award Will Support Nuclear Nonproliferation R&D, Education, John Toon
- FDA Taps Georgia Tech to Help Reduce Cost of Making Antibiotics, Josh Brown
Posted in Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, Healthcare, How to, Nature, Net, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Earth, Electronics, Georgia Tech, Health, Skills, Technology
By Sarah Garfinkel – When considering the senses, we tend to think of sight and sound, taste, touch and smell. However, these are classified as exteroceptive senses, that is, they tell us something about the outside world. In contrast, interoception is a sense that informs us about our internal bodily sensations, such as the pounding of our heart, the flutter of butterflies in our stomach or feelings of hunger.
The brain represents, integrates and prioritizes interoceptive information from the internal body. These are communicated through a set of distinct neural and humeral (ie, blood-borne) pathways. This sensing of internal states of the body is part of the interplay between body and brain: it maintains homeostasis, the physiological stability necessary for survival; it provides key motivational drivers such as hunger and thirst; it explicitly represents bodily sensations, such as bladder distension.
But that is not all, and herein lies the beauty of interoception, as our feelings, thoughts and perceptions are also influenced by the dynamic interaction between body and brain.
The shaping of emotional experience through the body’s internal physiology has long been recognized. The American philosopher William James argued in 1892 that the mental aspects of emotion, the ‘feeling states’, are a product of physiology. He reversed our intuitive causality, arguing that the physiological changes themselves give rise to the emotional state: our heart does not pound because we are afraid; fear arises from our pounding heart. more>
Posted in Book review, Economy, Education, Healthcare, How to, Nature, Technology
Tagged body, Business improvement, Health, Mind, talk, world
Plant Module Design
Siemens – Deliver greater innovation at higher quality and lower cost with our comprehensive 3D plant module and equipment design solutions for the Energy & Utilities industry. Our 3D CAD solutions provide a fully integrated and intuitive suite of broad and deep, best in class capabilities. They combine a data-centric approach to modular plant design with full configuration management to dramatically improve efficiencies at the fabrication facility.
Global megatrends such as the rise of international competition and prolonged low commodity prices are disrupting the entire Energy & Utilities industry. Leading Equipment OEM’s and EPCs are adopting a more modular approach to plant and module design and fabrication. more>
Posted in Business, Economy, Education, How to, Net, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Health, Industrial economy, Manufacturing, PLM, Siemens, Technology
By Sophie Yeo – Agriculture is responsible for around 9 percent of the United States’ greenhouse gas emissions—from fertilizer releasing nitrous oxide, for instance, or from cows emitting methane. And large-scale farming isn’t just bad for the environment; the application of pesticides has serious health implications for those who work on farms. Recent studies have linked high pesticide exposure to a poor sense of smell and a doubled risk of cardiovascular disease among Latino farm workers.
Sustainable agriculture offers a way to bypass these pitfalls. Instead of filling their baskets at Walmart, ethically minded consumers can buy local and organic produce directly from the farmer who grew it, whether at farmers’ markets or through a community-supported agriculture program, reducing food miles and avoiding the industrial contamination and erosion associated with conventional agriculture.
But Ryanne Pilgeram worries that this improved model of agriculture is fundamentally incapable of surviving in a corporatized America—and that the sacrifices these people are making to survive are steadily chipping away at their claims of sustainability.
One problem is the price of the produce.
Then there’s the problem that the system ultimately rests on a sequence of compromises and sacrifices that the farmers themselves must make, regardless of their ideological commitment to the cause. These sacrifices are personal, environmental, and social. “Only the select few, the … richest amongst us are really taking care of land in a truly sustainable way,” one farmer reported.
“The economic system that we have in place makes it impossible, really, to create a socially just food system. It’s not possible under capitalism,” Pilgeram says. more>
Posted in Business, Economy, Education, Nature, Science, Technology
Tagged Business, Capital, Climate change, Earth, Farming, Health, Sustainable agriculture
Brilliant Glow of Paint-On Semiconductors Comes from Ornate Quantum Physics
By Ben Brumfield – LED lights and monitors, and quality solar panels were born of a revolution in semiconductors that efficiently convert energy to light or vice versa. Now, next-generation semiconducting materials are on the horizon, and in a new study, researchers have uncovered eccentric physics behind their potential to transform lighting technology and photovoltaics yet again.
Comparing the quantum properties of these emerging so-called hybrid semiconductors with those of their established predecessors is about like comparing the Bolshoi Ballet to jumping jacks. Twirling troupes of quantum particles undulate through the emerging materials, creating, with ease, highly desirable optoelectronic (light-electronic) properties, according to a team of physical chemists led by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
These same properties are impractical to achieve in established semiconductors.
The particles moving through these new materials also engage the material itself in the quantum action, akin to dancers enticing the floor to dance with them. The researchers were able to measure patterns in the material caused by the dancing and relate them to the emerging material’s quantum properties and to energy introduced into the material.
These insights could help engineers work productively with the new class of semiconductors. more>
- Long-Acting Contraceptive Designed to be Self-Administered Via Microneedle Patch, John Toon
- Flu Vaccine Supply Gaps Can Intensify Flu Seasons, Make Pandemics Deadlier, Ben Brumfield
- Powerful X-ray Beams Unlock Secrets of Nanoscale Crystal Formation, John Toon
- Executive Director Selected at Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Machines, John Toon
- 3-D Printed Heart Valve Models Honored in International Competition, Josh Brown
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- Study Finds Dramatic Growth in Numbers of “Supporting Scientists” on Research Teams, John Toon
- No Bleeding Required: Anemia Detection Via Smartphone, Holly Korschun
- Shape-Shifting Origami Could Help Antenna Systems Adapt On The Fly, Josh Brown
- Swapping Bacteria May Help ‘Nemo’ Fish Cohabitate with Fish-Killing Anemones, Ben Brumfield
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- Georgia Tech Researchers Working To Improve Fairness in the ML Pipeline, Tess Malone
- NASA Exobiology Grant to Chris Reinhard, A. Maureen Rouhi
- Researchers Helping Develop Game to Improve STEM Learning in Chronically Ill Children, David Mitchell
Posted in Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, Nature, Science, Technology
Tagged Biology, Business improvement, Georgia Tech, Health, Physics, Technology
Growing Pile of Human and Animal Waste Harbors Threats, Opportunities
By Josh Brown – As demand for meat and dairy products increases across the world, much attention has landed on how livestock impact the environment, from land usage to greenhouse gas emissions.
Now researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are highlighting another effect from animals raised for food and the humans who eat them: the waste they all leave behind.
In a paper published November 13 in Nature Sustainability, the research team put forth what they believe is the first global estimate of annual recoverable human and animal fecal biomass. In 2014, the most recent year with data, the number was 4.3 billion tons and growing, and waste from livestock outweighed that from humans five to one at the country level.
“Exposure to both human and animal waste represent a threat to public health, particularly in low-income areas of the world that may not have resources to implement the best management and sanitation practices,” said Joe Brown, an assistant professor in Georgia Tech’s School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. “But estimating the amount of recoverable feces in the world also highlights the enormous potential from a resource perspective.” more>
- Solving a 75-Year-Old Mystery Might Provide a New Source of Farm Fertilizer, John Toon
- When Boy Fish Build Castles to Impress Girl Fish, Boy Genes Get a Rise, Ben Brumfield
- Cotton-Based Hybrid Biofuel Cell Could Power Implantable Medical Devices, John Toon
- ‘Suicide Handshakes’ Kill Precursor T Cells that Pose Autoimmune Dangers, Ben Brumfield
- Research Raises Awareness of Indoor Air Quality Risk from 3D Printers, Josh Brown
- Stripping the Linchpins From the Life-Making Machine Reaffirms Its Seminal Evolution, Ben Brumfield
- Georgia Tech, UConn, and UMass Lowell Collaborate with Industry, NSF on 3D Printing, Josh Brown
- Open Source Machine Learning Tool Could Help Choose Cancer Drugs, John Toon
- Delivering Antibodies via mRNA Could Prevent RSV Infection, Kenna Simmons
- NASA Pushes Exploration of Oceans in Our Solar System in Georgia Tech-Led Alliance, Ben Brumfield
- Airbus and Georgia Tech Open Center for Overall Aircraft Design, John Toon
- Pilot Project Will Use Campus Wastewater to Grow Vegetables, Kenna Simmons
Posted in Business, Construction, EARTH WATCH, Economic development, Economy, Education, Healthcare, History, Nature, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Capital, Climate change, Earth, Ecology, Georgia Tech, Health, Jobs
Neuroscientists Team with Engineers to Explore how the Brain Controls Movement
By Carol Clark – Scientists have made remarkable advances into recording the electrical activity that the nervous system uses to control complex skills, leading to insights into how the nervous system directs an animal’s behavior.
“We can record the electrical activity of a single neuron, and large groups of neurons, as animals learn and perform skilled behaviors,” says Samuel Sober, an associate professor of biology at Emory University who studies the brain and nervous system. “What’s missing,” he adds, “is the technology to precisely record the electrical signals of the muscles that ultimately control that movement.”
The Sober lab is now developing that technology through a collaboration with the lab of Muhannad Bakir, a professor in Georgia Tech’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
The technology will be used to help understand the neural control of many different skilled behaviors to potentially gain insights into neurological disorders that affect motor control.
“By combining expertise in the life sciences at Emory with the engineering expertise of Georgia Tech, we are able to enter new scientific territory,” Bakir says. “The ultimate goal is to make discoveries that improve the quality of life of people.” more>
- This Matrix Delivers Healing Stem Cells to Injured Elderly Muscles, Ben Brumfield
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- As We Get Parched, Cognition Can Sputter, Dehydration Study Says, Ben Brumfield
- Georgia Tech receives $1.6 million for nuclear energy projects, Lance Wallace
- IceCube Neutrinos Point to Long-Sought Cosmic Ray Accelerator, John Toon
- Research could lead to longer talk time and higher data rates in 5G devices, John Toon
Posted in Economic development, Education, Energy, Nature, Net, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Electronics, Georgia Tech, Health, Physics, Technology