Tag Archives: Internet

To Get the Best Results From Your Employees, Assemble Them Like a Team of Surgeons

By Oliver Staley – When assembling teams, managers should think about what the different members contribute. Teams where all the members share the same skills or background won’t cover the same breadth as one in which members bring a range of abilities and experiences.

There’s a growing body of research that shows that diversity strengthens teams, whether they’re juries or corporate boards.

Homogenous teams may have less friction and feel like they’re working productively, but as a study of problem-solving among members of fraternity and sororities shows, they’re are less likely to arrive at the right answer than groups where members can challenge assumptions and shared beliefs. more> https://goo.gl/KUDAIW

The internet of (economic) things

By Jonathan Sallet – Robert Gordon argues that, with the exception of a decade starting in the mid-1990s, information networks have not driven productivity in the way that electricity transformed the American manufacturing sector in the 20th Century. But some believe now that IoT (internet of things) can boost productivity growth by increasing the efficiency of traditional business operations such as manufacturing, transportation, and retail. Whether the United States can return to historical productivity growth levels is critical to the American economy.

IoT standards raise a series of policy questions: Are industry standards being set in a pro-competitive fashion?

Are companies complying with their obligations under standards (a question featured in an analogous context in the recent Federal Trade Commission complaint against Qualcomm)?

And what kind of role should government play in establishing the standards at the outset? more> https://goo.gl/p3Zwph

The End of Men? Not in the Retail Sector

By Virginia Postrel – The collapse of traditional retailing reverses a much-heralded trend: Jobs that involve working with things are disappearing, while those that demand a winning personality — celebrated as “emotional intelligence” — are growing.

Men lose while women win, especially at the bottom of the educational and income ladder.

Contrary to the feminine triumphalism that declares traditionally male skills obsolete, the economy is full of surprises and cross-currents. In the retailing world, demand for people-pleasing sales clerks is down.

Like capital-intensive factories, warehouses with robot assistants make workers more productive and hence more valuable. In Amazon’s cutting-edge facilities, they complement human skills. more> https://goo.gl/RNMzln

Related>

Updates from GE

I Machine, You Human: How AI Is Helping GE Build A Powerhouse Of Knowledge
By Tomas Kellner – Every fall, GE Global Research holds a scientific gathering called the Whitney Symposium highlighting the latest scientific trends. Last year the two-day event explored industrial applications of artificial intelligence. We sat down with Mark Grabb and Achalesh Pandey, two GE scientists looking for ways to apply AI to jet engines, medical scanners and other machines.

“We are starting to see significant performance increases from the combination of deep learning and reinforcement learning, where you have a human in the loop correcting the system,” Grabb said. “Once you build a smooth user experience and get the system going, people don’t even know they are correcting the AI along the way.”

At GE, we are writing software like Predix, which is the cloud-based operating system for machines that allows us to connect them to the Industrial Internet. But we also have a tremendous number of domain experts. There’s a lot of physics and domain knowledge that’s required to build good analytics and machine learning models. We have actually built AI systems that help data scientists more quickly and more effectively capture the domain knowledge across all the people inside GE building these models. So AI comes in even in the developing of analytics. more> https://goo.gl/OMZ9TS

Are human rights anything more than legal conventions?

BOOK REVIEW

Human Rights: From Morality to Law, Author: John Tasioulas.
The Law of Peoples, Author: John Rawls.

By John Tasioulas – Philosophers have debated the nature of human rights since at least the 12th century, often under the name of ‘natural rights’. These natural rights were supposed to be possessed by everyone and discoverable with the aid of our ordinary powers of reason (our ‘natural reason’), as opposed to rights established by law or disclosed through divine revelation.

Since the middle of the previous century an elaborate architecture of human rights law has emerged at the international, regional and domestic levels, one that is effective to wildly varying degrees. But, ultimately, this legalistic approach is unsatisfactory.

To begin with, the law does not always bind all those we believe should abide by human rights. For example, some states have not ratified human-rights treaties, or have ratified them subject to wide-ranging exceptions (‘reservations’) that blunt their critical edge. A country such as Saudi Arabia can have a seat on the UN Human Rights Council yet persist in severe forms of gender discrimination.

Moreover, the international law of human rights, like international law generally, almost exclusively binds states. Yet many believe that non-state agents, such as corporations, whose revenues in some instances exceed the GDP of all but the wealthiest nations, also bear grave human-rights responsibilities.

Whether I’m right or not, I am convinced that we cannot sustain our commitment to human rights on the cheap, by invoking only the law or the assumptions of our liberal democratic culture. more> https://goo.gl/AXTYg3

All The Things Wrong With the Web Today, According to its Inventor

By Joon Ian Wong – Tim Berners-Lee isn’t particularly pleased with the way things have gone with his creation.

Advertising’s pernicious effect on the news. The web is cleaving into the haves and have-nots of news readership. Wealthy readers will pay to opt out of advertising; less privileged readers will have to stick with news that’s ad-supported,

Social networks are ignoring their responsibility to the truth. Social networks absorb their users’ personal data, but wind up “disempowering” those same users by isolating them from the wider web,

Online privacy is a “human right” that’s being trampled. Government surveillance and corporate monetization of personal data threaten web users’ right to privacy. more> https://goo.gl/kqgTNp

Updates from Adobe

5 Illustration Trends for 2017
By Terry Hemphill – Illustrators whose work combines found imagery and traditional illustration in a conceptual, collage style are in high demand, according to Marlena Torzecka, president of Marlena Agency, an illustration and art agency in Princeton, New Jersey.

“Time is so valuable now, there’s often only one or two days to produce a piece for publication, making it nearly impossible to send a photographer to do a shoot for a story,” says Torzecka. “For example, for an editorial illustration about a breaking political story, it might mean photographing several people together who may not even be in the same location. It’s much easier to use existing photos to tell a new story.”

But collage also provides a wide-open playing field for illustrators to explore and mix ideas and concepts to produce images with a special power and appeal for the viewer. more> https://goo.gl/0je6O7

Related>

Your Brain Wasn’t Built to Handle Reality

By Barry Ritholtz – I just love data points like this. They say so much about humans as a species — how we process information, our inability to look dispassionately at a situation, the ever-present cognitive errors, even the challenges of reaching a simple, rational conclusion based on evidence.

There are lessons here for those who want to better understand how their own minds operate, and how they can manage their own behavior.

  1. We seek information to reinforce our beliefs.
  2. Selective perception prevents us from becoming fully informed.
  3. The ability to step out of ourselves to see the world from a different angle or perspective is hard.
  4. Emotions get in the way.
  5. Objectively measuring data isn’t our strong suit.

We believe what we want to believe, regardless of the evidence. more> https://goo.gl/ENT8uZ

Hierarchy in organizations: when it helps, when it hurts

BOOK REVIEW

Friend & Foe, Authors: Adam Galinsky and Maurice Schweitzer.

By Steve Kelman – You can’t say either hierarchical or participatory arrangements are always good or always bad. Instead, there are some organizational tasks for which hierarchy works best, and others where hierarchy creates problems.

How does hierarchy help?

It helps groups of people coordinate their activities and gives people information about who does what. It reduces the need to bargain and argue over such decisions.

Google initially tried to work without managers, but found that “the lack of hierarchy created chaos and confusion. … As they learned, even Google needs hierarchy.”

How does participatory management help?

It helps when the information the group needs to have to make good decisions is more complex and uncertain. The danger of hierarchy is that it tends not to generate a wide range of information.

“The more complex the task, the more likely we are to make a mistake or miss something critical” in a hierarchical organization.

Hierarchy can also suppress dissent, because people don’t want to take on those at the top. more> https://goo.gl/qSusGs

Parliamentary Democracies Are Just Better at Resisting Populism

By Leonid Bershidsky – Recent and upcoming political upheavals in a number of countries provide some evidence that the institutional design of democracies can be critically important.

A clear advantage is emerging for countries that don’t directly elect a president: They are more likely to resist the wave of populism sweeping the West.

Where there are no direct presidential elections, populists must win many individual elections over many cycles in order to rise to a nation’s chief executive; Donald Trump seized the White House in his first run for public office. It took less than 17 months.

When a country’s constitution provides for the direct election of a president, even with largely ceremonial powers, a strong leader with a lot of political weight can quickly turn things around and make the office more powerful, and more dangerous, than written laws allow. more> https://goo.gl/nmQGCC