By Michael Strevens – Modern science has a whole lot going for it that Ancient Greek or Chinese science did not: advanced technologies for observation and measurement, fast and efﬁcient communication, and well-funded and dedicated institutions for research. It also has, many thinkers have supposed, a superior (if not always ﬂawlessly implemented) ideology, manifested in a concern for objectivity, openness to criticism, and a preference for regimented techniques for discovery, such as randomized, controlled experimentation. I want to add one more item to that list, the innovation that made modern science truly scientific: a certain, highly strategic irrationality.
‘Experiment is the sole judge of scientific “truth”,’ declared the physicist Richard Feynman in 1963. ‘All I’m concerned with is that the theory should predict the results of measurements,’ said Stephen Hawking in 1994. And dipping back a little further in time, we ﬁnd the 19th-century polymath John Herschel expressing the same thought: ‘To experience we refer, as the only ground of all physical enquiry.’ These are not just personal opinions or propaganda; the principle that only empirical evidence carries weight in scientific argument is widely enforced across the scientific disciplines by scholarly journals, the principal organs of scientific communication. Indeed, it is widely agreed, both in thought and in practice, that science’s exclusive focus on empirical evidence is its greatest strength.
et there is more than a whiff of dogmatism about this exclusivity. Feynman, Hawking, Herschel all insist on it: ‘the sole judge’; ‘all I’m concerned with’; ‘the only ground’. Are they, perhaps, protesting too much? What about other considerations widely considered relevant to assessing scientific hypotheses: theoretical elegance, unity, or even philosophical coherence? Except insofar as such qualities make themselves useful in the prediction and explanation of observable phenomena, they are ruled out of scientiﬁc debate, declared unpublishable. It is that unpublishability, that censorship, that makes scientific argument unreasonably narrow. It is what constitutes the irrationality of modern science – and yet also what accounts for its unprecedented success. more>
Posted in Book review, Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, History, How to, Nature, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Internet, Physics, Science, Skills, Technology
Maybe we don’t have to speculate about what life is like inside a bubble. It might be the only cosmic reality we know.
By J Richard Gott – The explanation for the accelerating cosmic expansion, surprising as it was at first, was readily available from the theoretical toolbox of physicists. It traced back to an idea from Albert Einstein, called the cosmological constant. Einstein invented it in 1917, as part of a failed attempt to produce a static Universe based on his general theory of relativity. At that time, the data seemed to support such a model.
In 1922, the Russian mathematician Alexander Friedmann showed that relativity in its simplest form, without the cosmological constant, seemed to imply an expanding or contracting Universe. When Hubble’s observations showed conclusively that the Universe was expanding, Einstein abandoned the cosmological constant, but the possibility that it existed never went away.
Then the Belgian physicist Georges Lemaître showed that the cosmological constant could be interpreted in a physical way as the vacuum of empty space possessing a finite energy density accompanied by a negative pressure. That idea might sound rather bizarre at first. We are accustomed, after all, to thinking that the vacuum of empty space should have a zero energy density, since it has no matter in it. But suppose empty space had a finite but small energy density – there’s no inherent reason why such a thing could not be possible.
Negative pressure has a repulsive gravitational effect, but at the same time the energy itself has an attractive gravitational effect, since energy is equivalent to mass. (This is the relationship described by E=mc2, another implication of special relativity.) Operating in three directions – left-right, front-back, and up-down – the negative pressure creates repulsive effects three times as potent as the attractive effects of the vacuum energy, making the overall effect repulsive. We call this vacuum energy dark energy, because it produces no light. Dark energy is the widely accepted explanation for why the expansion rate of the Universe is speeding up.
Distant galaxies will flee from us because of the stretching of space between us and them. After a sufficient number of doublings, the space between them and us will be stretching so fast that their light will no longer be able to cross this ever-widening gap to reach us. Distant galaxies will fade from view and we will find ourselves seemingly alone in the visible Universe. more>
Brilliant Glow of Paint-On Semiconductors Comes from Ornate Quantum Physics
By Ben Brumfield – LED lights and monitors, and quality solar panels were born of a revolution in semiconductors that efficiently convert energy to light or vice versa. Now, next-generation semiconducting materials are on the horizon, and in a new study, researchers have uncovered eccentric physics behind their potential to transform lighting technology and photovoltaics yet again.
Comparing the quantum properties of these emerging so-called hybrid semiconductors with those of their established predecessors is about like comparing the Bolshoi Ballet to jumping jacks. Twirling troupes of quantum particles undulate through the emerging materials, creating, with ease, highly desirable optoelectronic (light-electronic) properties, according to a team of physical chemists led by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
These same properties are impractical to achieve in established semiconductors.
The particles moving through these new materials also engage the material itself in the quantum action, akin to dancers enticing the floor to dance with them. The researchers were able to measure patterns in the material caused by the dancing and relate them to the emerging material’s quantum properties and to energy introduced into the material.
These insights could help engineers work productively with the new class of semiconductors. more>
- Long-Acting Contraceptive Designed to be Self-Administered Via Microneedle Patch, John Toon
- Flu Vaccine Supply Gaps Can Intensify Flu Seasons, Make Pandemics Deadlier, Ben Brumfield
- Powerful X-ray Beams Unlock Secrets of Nanoscale Crystal Formation, John Toon
- Executive Director Selected at Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Machines, John Toon
- 3-D Printed Heart Valve Models Honored in International Competition, Josh Brown
- Chemical Separations Researcher Named to National Academy of Inventors, John Toon
- Study Finds Dramatic Growth in Numbers of “Supporting Scientists” on Research Teams, John Toon
- No Bleeding Required: Anemia Detection Via Smartphone, Holly Korschun
- Shape-Shifting Origami Could Help Antenna Systems Adapt On The Fly, Josh Brown
- Swapping Bacteria May Help ‘Nemo’ Fish Cohabitate with Fish-Killing Anemones, Ben Brumfield
- Catalog of Cosmic Cataclysms Helps Establish Gravitational Wave Astronomy, John Toon
- Georgia Tech Researchers Working To Improve Fairness in the ML Pipeline, Tess Malone
- NASA Exobiology Grant to Chris Reinhard, A. Maureen Rouhi
- Researchers Helping Develop Game to Improve STEM Learning in Chronically Ill Children, David Mitchell
Posted in Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, Nature, Science, Technology
Tagged Biology, Business improvement, Georgia Tech, Health, Physics, Technology
Finally, a Robust Fuel Cell that Runs on Methane at Practical Temperatures
By Ben Brumfield – Fuel cells have not been particularly known for their practicality and affordability, but that may have just changed. There’s a new cell that runs on cheap fuel at temperatures comparable to automobile engines and which slashes materials costs.
Though the cell is in the lab, it has high potential to someday electrically power homes and perhaps cars, say the researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology who led its development. In a new study in the journal Nature Energy the researchers detailed how they reimagined the entire fuel cell with the help of a newly invented fuel catalyst.
The catalyst has dispensed with high-priced hydrogen fuel by making its own out of cheap, readily available methane. And improvements throughout the cell cooled the seething operating temperatures that are customary in methane fuel cells dramatically, a striking engineering accomplishment. more>
- How the Elephant Uses its Trunk to Eat, John Tibbetts
- New Chip Measures Multiple Cellular Responses to Speed Drug Discovery, Kenna Simmons
- Tiny bacteria do a big job for a huge fish tank, Ben Brumfield
- New Material, Manufacturing Use Sun’s Heat for Cheaper Renewable Electricity, Kayla Wiles
- Origami, 3D Printing Merge to Make Complex Structures in One Shot, Elizabeth Thomson
- How Animals Use Their Tails to Swish and Swat Away Insects, Jason Maderer
- How Communication Among Cells Affects Development of Multicellular Tissue, John Toon
- Microfluidic Molecular Exchanger Helps Control Therapeutic Cell Manufacturing, John Toon
- Red Glow Helps Identify Nanoparticles for Delivering RNA Therapies, John Toon
- Georgia Tech Places 34th in World University Ranking, John Toon
- FDA Fueling Cell Manufacturing Research at Georgia Tech, Jerry Grillo
- NSF funds two new projects to understand greenhouse gas emissions from soil, expand microbial big-data analysis tools, Kostas Konstantinidis
- Early Earth Struggled to Make Oxygen for Complex Life, A. Maureen Rouhi
- Georgia Tech Researchers Develop AI That Can Create Entirely New Games, David Mitchell
- New Approach to Alzheimer’s, Jerry Grillo
- Suryanarayana leads new $3M project to unlock the power of tomorrow’s supercomputers for understanding chemical phenomena, Phanish Suryanarayana
Posted in Business, Economic development, Economy, Education, Healthcare, How to, Nature, Science, Technology, Transportation
Tagged Business improvement, Electronics, Georgia Tech, Physics, Productivity, Technology
Looking Back in Time to Watch for a Different Kind of Black Hole
By John Toon – Black holes form when stars die, allowing the matter in them to collapse into an extremely dense object from which not even light can escape. Astronomers theorize that massive black holes could also form at the birth of a galaxy, but so far nobody has been able to look far enough back in time to observe the conditions creating these direct collapse black holes (DCBH).
The James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled for launch in 2021, might be able look far enough back into the early Universe to see a galaxy hosting a nascent massive black hole. Now, a simulation done by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology has suggested what astronomers should look for if they search the skies for a DCBH in its early stages.
DCBH formation would be initiated by the collapse of a large cloud of gas during the early formation of a galaxy, said John H. Wise, a professor in Georgia Tech’s School of Physics and the Center for Relativistic Astrophysics. But before astronomers could hope to catch this formation, they would have to know what to look for in the spectra that the telescope could detect, which is principally infrared.
Black holes take about a million years to form, a blip in galactic time. In the DCBH simulation, that first step involves gas collapsing into a supermassive star as much as 100,000 times more massive than our sun. The star then undergoes gravitational instability and collapses into itself to form a massive black hole. Radiation from the black hole then triggers the formation of stars over period of about 500,000 years, the simulation suggested. more>
- Synthetic Organelle Shows How Tiny Puddle-Organs in our Cells Work, Ben Brumfield
- 3D-Printed Tracheal Splints Used in Groundbreaking Pediatric Surgery, John Toon
- Summer Lab Experience Helps Launch Industry and Research Careers, John Toon
- Trailblazing Molecular Jungles with New Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Consortium, Ben Brumfield, Maureen Rouhi
- Buzzing Cancer Drugs into Malignancies in the Brain, Ben Brumfield
- Boron Nitride Separation Process Could Facilitate Higher Efficiency Solar Cells, John Toon
- Genomic Study of 412 Anthrax Strains Provides New Virulence Clues, John Toon
- Control System Simulator Helps Operators Learn to Fight Hackers, John Toon
- Dehydration Alters Human Brain Shape and Activity, Slackens Task Performance, Ben Brumfield
- Laughing Gas May Have Helped Warm Early Earth and Given Breath to Life, Ben Brumfield
- More Workers Working Might Not Get More Work Done, Ants (and Robots) Show, John Toon
- Erasing Stop Signs: ShapeShifter Shows Self-Driving Cars Can Still Be Manipulated, Kristen Perez
- New Research Center for Atlanta, Holly Korschun
- Silica May Have Helped Form Protein Precursors in Prebiotic Earth, A. Maureen Rouhi
- Cracking the Cancer Code, Georgia Parmelee
- Georgia Tech Award Equips Coda’s Data Center with New Supercomputer
Posted in Business, Economy, Education, Energy & emissions, Healthcare, History, Nature, Net, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Earth, Electronics, Georgia Tech, Internet, Physics, Productivity, Technology
Neuroscientists Team with Engineers to Explore how the Brain Controls Movement
By Carol Clark – Scientists have made remarkable advances into recording the electrical activity that the nervous system uses to control complex skills, leading to insights into how the nervous system directs an animal’s behavior.
“We can record the electrical activity of a single neuron, and large groups of neurons, as animals learn and perform skilled behaviors,” says Samuel Sober, an associate professor of biology at Emory University who studies the brain and nervous system. “What’s missing,” he adds, “is the technology to precisely record the electrical signals of the muscles that ultimately control that movement.”
The Sober lab is now developing that technology through a collaboration with the lab of Muhannad Bakir, a professor in Georgia Tech’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
The technology will be used to help understand the neural control of many different skilled behaviors to potentially gain insights into neurological disorders that affect motor control.
“By combining expertise in the life sciences at Emory with the engineering expertise of Georgia Tech, we are able to enter new scientific territory,” Bakir says. “The ultimate goal is to make discoveries that improve the quality of life of people.” more>
- This Matrix Delivers Healing Stem Cells to Injured Elderly Muscles, Ben Brumfield
- New Health Economics Lab and $3.3 Million in Funding Coming to Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts, Michael Pearson
- Researchers Help Close Security Hole in Popular Encryption Software, John Toon
- World’s Fastest Creature May Also be One of the Smallest, John Toon
- Sensor Could Monitor Brain Aneurysm Treatment, John Toon
- Georgia Tech Scientist Honored for Energy Research, Josh Brown
- García Chosen to Head Georgia Tech Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, John Toon
- Previously Overlooked “Coral Ticks” Weaken Degraded Reefs, John Toon
- Material Formed from Crab Shells and Trees Could Replace Flexible Plastic Packaging, Josh Brown
- Technique May Improve Lung Delivery of Bacteria-Killing Phage, John Toon
- As We Get Parched, Cognition Can Sputter, Dehydration Study Says, Ben Brumfield
- Georgia Tech receives $1.6 million for nuclear energy projects, Lance Wallace
- IceCube Neutrinos Point to Long-Sought Cosmic Ray Accelerator, John Toon
- Research could lead to longer talk time and higher data rates in 5G devices, John Toon
Posted in Economic development, Education, Energy, Nature, Net, Science, Technology
Tagged Business improvement, Electronics, Georgia Tech, Health, Physics, Technology
New Cell Manufacturing Research Facility will Change Approaches to Disease Therapies
By John Toon – The vision of making affordable, high-quality cell-based therapies available to hundreds of thousands of patients worldwide moved closer to reality June 6 with the dedication of a new cell manufacturing research facility at Georgia Tech aimed at changing the way we think about medical therapies.
The new Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) like ISO 8 and ISO 7 compliant facility is part of the existing Marcus Center for Therapeutic Cell Characterization and Manufacturing (MC3M). The center was established in 2016 and made possible by a $15.75 million gift from philanthropist Bernie Marcus, with a $7.25 million investment from Georgia Tech and another $1 million from the Georgia Research Alliance.
MC3M is already helping researchers from Georgia Tech and partner organizations develop ways to provide therapeutic living cells of consistent quality in quantities large enough to meet the growing demands for the cutting-edge treatments. more>
- Sodium- and Potassium-based Batteries Hold Promise for Cheap Energy Storage, Josh Brown
- Georgia Tech Team Receives DARPA Grant to Apply Neuroscience to Machine Learning, Niccole Coleman
- Research Charts the Way to More Reliable Carbon-based Microelectronics, Josh Brown
- Making the Oxygen We Breathe, a Photosynthesis Mechanism Exposed, Ben Brumfield
- Aircraft Microbiome Much Like That of Homes and Offices, Study Finds, John Toon
- I Saw That. Brain Mechanisms Create Confidence About Things Seen, Ben Brumfield
- Spooky Quantum Particle Pairs Fly Like Weird Curveballs, Ben Brumfield
- In Child-Crippling Mucolipidosis IV, Drug Shows Hope in Lab Cultures, Ben Brumfield
- New Frontiers Beckon Math and Biology in Multimillion Dollar NSF-Simons Project, Ben Brumfield
- Shining a Light on Toxic Chemicals Curbs Industrial Use, Josh Brown
- Study Shows How Bacteria Behave Differently in Humans Compared to the Lab, John Toon
- Letting the Cat Out of the Bag: Why Researchers Disclose Results Ahead of Publication, Josh Brown
- Delving into the Perchlorate Diners of Pilot Valley, Utah, A. Maureen Rouhi
- Bacterial Conversations in Cystic Fibrosis, A. Maureen Rouhi
Posted in Business, Economic development, Education, Healthcare, Nature, Science, Technology
Tagged Biology, Business improvement, Electronics, Georgia Tech, Health, Manufacturing, Physics, Technology
Coherent optical turns 10: Here’s how it was made
By Bo Gowan – This is the story of how a team of over 100 people in Ciena’s R&D labs pulled together an impressive collection of technology innovations that created a completely new way of transporting data over fiber…and in the processes helped change the direction of the entire optical networking industry.
Back in 2008, many in the industry had serious doubts that commercializing coherent fiber optic transport was even possible, much less the future of optical communications. That left a team of Ciena engineers to defy the naysayers and hold the torch of innovation.
“What we first began to see at Telecom 99 was that we could achieve these high speeds the brute force way, but it was really, really painful,” said Dino DiPerna in an interview. Dino, along with many in his team, were brought on by Ciena as part of the company’s 2010 acquisition of Nortel’s optical business. He now serves as Ciena’s Vice President of Packet-Optical Platforms R&D and is based in Ottawa.
By ‘brute force’ Dino is referring to the traditional time-division multiplexing (TDM) method that had been used until then to speed up optical transmission – basically turning the light on and off at increasingly faster speeds (also called the baud or symbol rate). “But once you start pushing past 10 billion times per second, you begin running into significant problems,” said DiPerna.
Those complexities had to do with the underlying boundaries of what you can do with light. The fundamental issue at hand was the natural spread and propagation of light as it travels along the fiber – created by two phenomenon called chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion, or PMD. As you push past 10G speeds, the tolerance to chromatic dispersion goes down with the square of the baud. Due to PMD and noise from optical amplifiers, a 40 Gbaud stream will lose at least 75% of its reach compared to a 10 Gbaud stream.
This reach limitation had two consequences. First, it meant adding more costly regenerators to the network. Second, it meant that the underlying fiber plant required a more expensive, high-quality fiber to operate properly at 40G transmission speeds. more>
Posted in Broadband, Communication industry, Economy, History, Net, Product, Science, Technology, Telecom industry
Tagged Broadband, Business improvement, Ciena, Fiber optics, Internet, Physics, Technology
Robot Monitors Chicken Houses and Retrieves Eggs
By John Toon – “Today’s challenge is to teach a robot how to move in environments that have dynamic, unpredictable obstacles, such as chickens,” said Colin Usher, a research scientist in GTRI’s Food Processing Technology Division.
“When busy farmers must spend time in chicken houses, they are losing money and opportunities elsewhere on the farm. In addition, there is a labor shortage when it comes to finding workers to carry out manual tasks such as picking up floor eggs and simply monitoring the flocks. If a robot could successfully operate autonomously in a chicken house 24 hours a day and seven days a week, it could then pick up floor eggs, monitor machinery, and check on birds, among other things. By assigning one robot to each chicken house, we could also greatly reduce the potential for introductions of disease or cross-contamination from one house to other houses.”
The autonomous robot is outfitted with an ultrasonic localization system similar to GPS but more suited to an indoor environment where GPS might not be available. This system uses low-cost, ultrasonic beacons indicating the robot’s orientation and its location in a chicken house. The robot also carries a commercially available time-of-flight camera, which provides three-dimensional (3D) depth data by emitting light signals and then measuring how long they take to return. The localization and 3D data together allow the robot’s software to devise navigation plans around chickens to perform tasks. more>
- Real-Time Captcha Technique Improves Biometric Authentication, John Toon
- Data Detectives Shift Suspicions in Alzheimer’s from Usual Suspect to Inside Villain, Ben Brumfield
- Why Bees Soared and Slime Flopped as Inspirations for Systems Engineering, Ben Brumfield
- Asteroid “Time Capsules” May Help Explain How Life Started on Earth, John Toon
- Georgia Tech Trio Selected to National Academy of Engineering, Jason Maderer/Kay Kinard
- Successful SpaceX Launch Clears Way for Historic Georgia Tech Spacecraft, Jason Maderer
- Hatchet Enzyme, Enabler of Sickness and of Health, Exposed by Neutron Beams, Ben Brumfield
- Neurons Get the Beat and Keep It Going in Drumrolls, Ben Brumfield
- Yeast Assay Helps Reveal Genesis of Amyloids and Prions, A. Maureen Rouhi
- Self-assembled “Hairy” Nanoparticles Could Give a Double Punch to Cancer, John Toon
- Manufacturing Disaster Assistance Program to help Georgia companies prepare for natural disasters, Ben Cheeks
- Disclosing Weaknesses Can Undermine Some Workplace Relationships, Josh Brown
- Maelstroms in the Heart Confirmed
- The Next Frontier in Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Parmelee
- Air Force Grant Enables Quantum Simulation Using Cold Atoms, A. Maureen Rouhi
Posted in EARTH WATCH, Education, Energy & emissions, Healthcare, Nature, Net, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology
Tagged Broadband, Business improvement, Climate change, Earth, Health, Industrial economy, Physics, Productivity, Technology