Densifying the Network, One Small Cell at a Time
By Wayne Hickey – Mobile network usage is growing at an astounding rate of 42% CAGR, as data rates rise driven by an insatiable customer appetite for video, gaming, social media, and live streaming. With the omnipresence of smartphone technology, advancement towards 5G, and mobile data as the major use cases – MNOs (Mobile Network Operators) struggle to maintain with growing customer demands.
There are three primary ways that MNOs can add capacity to their wireless network:
- Buy more spectrum
- Make spectrum utilization more efficient by optimizing spectral efficiency
- Densify the network, by adding more cell sites, while reusing available spectrum
A mobile network must be designed to physically reach the intended number of subscribers and adapt to the changing capacity needs of those subscribers. To do so, MNOs segment their networks by base station coverage by using macro cells and small cells (ex. micro cells, pico cells, nano cells, femtocells, and even WiFi cells, or hotspots).
Macro cells cover large geographic areas while the various types of small cells cover much smaller and varied geographic areas serving fewer end-users, both indoor and outdoor.
Macro cell sites use high powered radios, generally for large coverage areas. Small cells use much lower power radios, require less space, and increase data capacity by proliferation or densification of the network. Densification of the network means deploying lots of small cells to enable more overall users, lower latency, better mobile device battery life, and expanded coverage. The approach is to basically reuse spectrum over and over again, by keeping the coverage area small, and managing the interference between cells using a variety of techniques. more>
Posted in Broadband, Business, Communication industry, Economy, Net, Telecom industry, VIDEO
Tagged Broadband, Business improvement, Ciena, Internet, Macro cells, Small cells, Technology, Wireless
Future of 5G
By Susan Friedman, Brian Lavallée – 5G is coming, and with it comes the expectation of wireless speeds that are 100X or more what we experience today with 4G. In fact, one of the goals of 5G is to achieve maximum download speeds of 10 Gbps per user. This influx of traffic won’t come without a cost to the underlying networks that support it.
To succeed, mobile network operators (MNOs) will need more than just a new radio access network, they will also need fiber—and lots of it – to manage the massive increase in bandwidth that will come as billions more users, both human and machine, join the network.
5G is expected to be deployed strategically in different locations, especially in the early days. If consumers are expecting all 3G and 4G networks to be replaced with 5G, they’ll be disappointed. 5G is expected to complement 3G/4G where it makes sense. And depending on where service providers believe applications and use cases will be most lucrative, they can roll out speeds of up to 10 Gb/s.
This means if you’re in a rural community, chances are you probably won’t get 5G in the early days. In cities and metro areas you’ll see potential applications like enhanced mobile broadband, self-driving cars, video broadcast services, and other use cases that will require high-bandwidth and/or low-latency. So, service providers will deploy 5G in geographic areas where it makes economic sense. more> https://goo.gl/kmxQSs
Posted in Broadband, Business, Communication industry, Economic development, Economy, Net, Technology, Telecom industry
Tagged 5G, Broadband, Ciena, Internet, Net evolution, Technology, Wireless
By Sasha Cohen O’Connell – Resolving today’s most pressing cyber security and Internet governance challenges is dependent on the tech industry and the government working together on both policy development and policy implementation.
Specifically, collaboration is required to successfully research, design, debate, and ultimately implement effective solutions.
While there is overwhelming consensus on the need for collaboration, it remains a huge challenge. Why?
While many factors contribute to the problem, including differing incentive structures, cultures and business models, one critical element—organizational structure—is a significant and often overlooked hurdle that needs attention and creative solutions.
Most collaborations today are done by ad hoc teams of operational personnel, lawyers, government affairs departments, and/or trade associations or other outside third parties. This setup is neither efficient nor effective. more> https://goo.gl/B0j8RA
Posted in Broadband, Business, Communication industry, CONGRESS WATCH, Economic development, Economy, History, Leadership, Media, Net, Regulations
Tagged Broadband, Business improvement, Congress Watch, Government, Internet, Leadership, United States, Wireless, Wireline
By Anne Fisher and Luc Darmon – Earlier attempts to accomplish precise location used methods based on measuring the RF power at a point in space and assuming a correlation between the electromagnetic field and distance to the access point.
This method requires a lot of “fingerprinting” work because you have to measure the field in many areas of the room so that you build a 3D matrix of the field [thus allowing you to] correlate with the distance. But [with the method just described] there are a number of drawbacks. First, the precision is not there. Second, as soon as you have another person or another object in the room the fingerprinting is definitely wrong, and people have to find algorithmic ways to compensate, which are fairly heavy and power consuming.
For those transitioning from methods not based on Time-of-Flight to those based on Time-of-Flight and to using impulse radio ultra wide band (IR-UWB) to measure the signal’s time of flight, there are considerations related to the technology itself.
For example, if you measure the signal’s time of flight from one object to another object, if you have an obstruction like a wall or another person, you have to assume that signal is slowed down, so the distance displayed will be larger—so you have to architect your system in a way such that you take into consideration the elements of this new technology.
Now, though, people are past the point of questions such as “what is this new technology and how does it work?” I think the market now understands there is no way to do location precisely other than with IR-UWB.
The technology in the chip is very versatile in terms of configurations and architectures. One can do a lot of different things in different systems with it. It’s a building block that people can use for doing different things and different architectures. more> https://goo.gl/9rykVv
Posted in Broadband, Communication industry, Economic development, Economy, Net, Product, Technology, Transportation
Tagged Business improvement, Electronics, Manufacturing, Real Time Location System, RTLS, Technology, Ultra Wide Band, Wireless
By Caroline Hayes – Whereas the Cortex-A5 has features designed for mobile computing, and the Cortex-A7’s multi-tasking suits smartphones, this latest processor is based on the ARMv8-A architecture.
It supports both 32- and 64-bit compute capabilities but consumes 10 percent less active power than the Cortex-A7.
Nandan Nayampally, VP Marketing, CPU Group, ARM, is looking forward to continued growth in the mobile phone market. The company has already shipped two billion entry-level smartphones, equipped with Cortex-A5 and Cortex-A7.
This eight-stage pipeline features 64-bit compute capabilities and a redesigned instruction fetch operation for efficiency with fewer cache accesses for lower power consumption. The instruction fetch bandwidth is optimized to accommodate the new branch prediction techniques. Throughput is also accelerated while minimizing area and power costs, using the instruction queue, which is balanced between the fetch and execute units. more> http://goo.gl/RVEaou
Posted in Broadband, Economic development, Economy, Education, Media, Net, Technology, Telecom industry
Tagged ARM architecture, Broadband, Business improvement, Electronics, Internet, Technology, Wireless