Rather than focusing on inputs such as percentage of GDP spent on defense, NATO should find a way to communicate more effectively the direct output of allies’ security investments. No single measure is likely to suffice.
Instead, the alliance should develop a suite of evaluative measures and a simplified framework for public discussion. Even with several measures, the emphasis should unequivocally be on measuring ready force capability and investments that the alliance needs.
NATO largely brought the 2 percent emphasis on itself.